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Kristian Kristiansen

In this article I examine how long-term economic strategies in the Bronze Age of northern Europe between 2300 and 500 BCE transformed the environment and thus created and imposed new ecological constraints that finally led to a major social transformation and a "dark age" that became the start of the new long-term cycle of the Iron Age. During the last 30 years hundreds of well-excavated farmsteads and houses from south Scandinavia have made it possible to reconstruct the size and the structure of settlement and individual households through time. During the same period numerous pollen diagrams have established the history of vegetation and environmental changes. I will therefore use the size of individual households or farmsteads as a parameter of economic strength, and to this I add the role of metal as a triggering factor in the economy, especially after 1700 BCE when a full-scale bronze technology was adopted and after 500 BCE when it was replaced by iron as the dominant metal. A major theoretical concern is the relationships between micro- and macroeconomic changes and how they articulated in economic practices. Finally the nature of the "dark age" during the beginning of the Iron Age will be discussed, referring to Sing Chew's use of the concept (Chew 2006).

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"Communist" dispossession meets "reactionary" resistance

The ironies of the parliamentary Left in West Bengal

Projit Bihari Mukharji

The reflections in this article were instigated by the repeated and brutal clashes since 2007 between peasants and the state government’s militias—both official and unofficial—over the issue of industrialization. A communist government engaging peasants violently in order to acquire and transfer their lands to big business houses to set up capitalist enterprises seemed dramatically ironic. De- spite the presence of many immediate causes for the conflict, subtle long-term change to the nature of communist politics in the state was also responsible for the present situation. This article identifies two trends that, though significant, are by themselves not enough to explain what is happening in West Bengal today. First, the growth of a culture of governance where the Communist Party actively seeks to manage rather than politicize social conflicts; second, the recasting of radical political subjectivity as a matter of identity rather than an instigation for critical self-reflection and self-transformation.

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The Modernity of Political Representation

Its Innovative Thrust and Transnational Semantic Transfers during the Sattelzeit (Eighteenth to Nineteenth Centuries)

Samuel Hayat and José María Rosales

during and after the English Civil War is well known. 10 Likewise, its uses by the founding fathers of modern representative governments (in France, Great Britain, and the United States) are even better known. 11 However, the more underground and long-term

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Heather Wurtz and Olivia Wilkinson

capital, church infrastructure) to meet immediate psychological needs of families and bolster volunteer bases, while also promoting long-term change through civic engagement. Local actors are particularly well positioned to support organizing and advocacy

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Terms of Silence

Weaknesses in Corporate and Law Enforcement Responses to Cyberviolence against Girls

Suzanne Dunn, Julie S. Lalonde, and Jane Bailey

images) that cover a variety of forms of cyberviolence to which girls are subjected ( Bailey 2016 ). In company with Shariff (2015) , we suggest that long-term change is more likely to be achieved through an emphasis on proactive human rights

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Anxious Breath

An Autoethnographic Exploration of Non-binary Queerness, Vulnerability, and Recognition in Step Out

Lara Bochmann and Erin Hampson

call into question current modes of being, which expresses that different ways of existing are not only possible but maybe also necessary in achieving long-term change for queer and trans positions. Górska offers an additional reading of anxieties, in

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Governing the Sun

The Challenges of Geoengineering

Klaus Radunsky and Tim Cadman

greenhouse gases (GHGs) from the preindustrial period to the present will persist for centuries to millennia and continue to cause further long-term changes in the climate system, such as sea level rise. In model pathways with no or limited overshoot of 1.5°C

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Making the State Blush

Humanizing Relations in an Australian NGO Campaign for People Seeking Asylum

Tess Altman

supporters, and the 20 percent ‘opponents’ were never going to change their minds, so there was no point targeting them. Appealing to ‘persuadables’ was seen as the key to long-term change. Based on linguistic analysis, the campaign identified broadly

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“Clear and Present Danger”

The Legacy of the 1917 Espionage Act in the United States

Petra DeWitt

civil liberty of the individual,” the 1917 wartime measure to capture spies, saboteurs, and opponents to war remains in effect and evidences a long-term change in the government-citizen relationship. 66 Instead of protecting individual freedoms from the

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Laurent J.G. van der Maesen

anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases from the preindustrial period to the present will persist for centuries and will continue to cause further long-term changes in the climate system. The article outlines emerging technologies focusing on bioenergy