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Geoff Kennedy

This article examines the development of popular discourses of liberty as independence emerging from the struggles between peasants and landlords over the course of the late medieval and early modern periods. This discourse, relating to the aspirations of the dependent peasantry for free status, free tenure, and free labor, articulated a conception of independence that overlapped with the emerging republican discourse of the seventeenth century. However, whereas republicanism focuses almost exclusively on the arbitrary powers of the monarchical state, the popular tradition emphasizes freedom from the arbitrary powers of landlordism. After a brief introduction to the republican conception of liberty and a discussion of the dependent peasantry in England, the work of Gerrard Winstanley is presented as an innovative synthesis of popular and republican discourses of freedom as independence from the arbitrary powers of exploitation.

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Barry Cole, Richard Kell, and Ian Parks

Codicil by BARRY COLE

Measures by RICHARD KELL

The Levellers The End Of The Road by IAN PARKS

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Ian Parks, Alexis Lykiard, and Deborah Tyler-Bennett

The Levellers The End of the Road IAN PARKS

Mysteries of Missouri ALEXIS LYKIARD

From The Ladies of Harris’s List: Soho: ‘Planne Be’ Relates The Declaration Of ‘Sir’ Bancs Strikland Miss Cole at Queen-Street, Golden-Square DEBORAH TYLER-BENNETT

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Simon Tormey and Jean-Paul Gagnon

—starting in the late seventeenth century—it’s clear that the real demand there was for greater representation. Look, for example, at what the Levellers (e.g., Foxley 2013 ) or French Revolutionaries (e.g., Hobsbawm 2001 ) demanded. It’s something that

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Horizontal and vertical politics

Strategic uses of abajo and arriba in the construction of the Venezuelan socialist State

Stefano Boni

of the mid-seventeenth century were tellingly called the Levellers “for they intend to sett all things straight, and rayse a parity and community in the kingdom” as a contemporary source explains ( Chisholm 1911: 506 ). The collapse of vertical

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Michael Sheridan

social categories did not, however, make a smooth transition to an intensive agricultural system based on private property. The dispossessed and displaced smallholder farmers and squatters formed the Diggers and True Levellers Movements in the seventeenth

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Processes of Territorialization in Mexico

Indigenous Government, Violence, and Comunalidad

Philipp Wolfesberger

Rafael Cardoso Jiménez . Mexico City : Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México . Esteva , Gustavo . 2012 . “ Hope from the Margins .” In The Wealth of the Commons , ed. David Bollier and Silke Helfrich . Amherst, MA : Levellers Press

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From Yehuda Etzion to Yehuda Glick

From Redemptive Revolution to Human Rights on the Temple Mount

Shlomo Fischer

and this-worldly orientation, all indicate that they are a twenty-first-century Jewish version of the Protestant enthusiasts that Hume described in that essay, that is, Levellers, Quakers, Dissenters, and Fifth Monarchy Men. Like the extremist settlers

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The Fiscal Commons

Tax Evasion, the State, and Commoning in a Catalonian Cooperative

Vinzenz Bäumer Escobar

.1007/978-3-319-69772-7 Bollier , David , and Silke Helfrich , eds. 2014 . The Wealth of the Commons: A World beyond Market and State . Amherst, MA : Levellers Press . Braithwaite , Valerie A. 2003 . “ A New Approach to Tax Compliance .” In Taxing Democracy

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Populism

The Timeline of a Concept

Juan Francisco Fuentes

too large and assorted: “The Levellers, the Diggers, the Chartists, the Narodniki, the US populists, the Socialist-Revolutionaries, Gandhi, Sinn Fein, the Iron Guard, Social Credit in Alberta, Cardenas, Haya de la Terre, Poujade, Belaunde, Nyerere.” 27