Integrated river management is heralded as the new style of river management, but it has been preceded by a number of previous styles, and is unlikely to be the last. This article presents the first analysis of the evolution of river management using Spiral Dynamics (SD). SD provides a growth hierarchy of value systems (vMemes), reflecting increasing complexity and inclusiveness ranging from instinctive to holistic. Based on an interpretation of literature and policy documents, we conclude that (1) SD provides a broad interpretative framework that can be applied in all river basins, (2) river management in the Netherlands shows the subsequent dominance of the blue, orange, and green vMeme, yellow is at the take-off phase, (3) further transition to yellow integrated river management requires identification of barriers to change. We give an overview and policy implications. Further research should be oriented towards quantification of vMemes in stakeholders and landscaping measures.
Menno W. Straatsma and Reinier J.W. de Nooij
This article attempts to elevate the concept of respect from the level of interpersonal characteristics to one of theoretical significance, hopefully stimulating further debate and research. 'Respect' and 'deference' are often confused, resulting in difficulties in usage. The article explores these two terms within the context of organizations. It argues that respect and deference are culturally generated and maintained forms of interactions, which makes them relevant for anthropological investigation. Culture is observed within the symbolic context and analyzed at the level of elaborating symbols for the coordination of data in order to allow for a distinction between management styles in the organizations that form the objects of study in this article. It is suggested that firms that have developed a culture of respect appear to be more successful than those that are based on deference.