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The Chaouch of Marseille

Metropolitan Intermediaries and Colonial Control, 1928–1945

Danielle Beaujon

migrants in Marseille. That afternoon, chaos erupted at the BAMNA due to “the insubordination of the chaouch Mohamed Ben Hadj.” In “violent terms and gestures,” Ben Hadj shouted that he would not obey Bourgeois’ orders and declared that his new boss

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Père Marie-Benoît and Joseph Bass

The Rescue of Jews in Marseille and Nice, 1940-1943

Susan Zuccotti

Père Marie-Benoît was a French Capuchin priest who helped rescue thousands of Jews in Marseille, Nice, and Rome during the Holocaust. Unlike most non-Jewish rescuers, however, he worked regularly with courageous, dynamic Jewish men who became close personal friends. This article examines his cooperation with his first Jewish associate, Joseph Bass, who set up the Service André for Jewish rescue in Marseille. With Bass and his assistants, Père Marie-Benoît hid Jews in small units throughout the region; created networks to supply fugitives with food, documents, money, and moral support; enlisted help from sympathetic local bureaucrats; and avoided dependence on large Jewish assistance organizations. Working together, the Jews and non-Jews were much more effective than either group could have been alone. Père Marie-Benoît later applied these techniques to rescue activities in Rome. This article also examines why Père Marie-Benoît became involved in Jewish rescue in the first place, and shows that his wartime experiences determined his subsequent lifelong dedication to Jewish-Christian reconciliation.

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Rapping French Cities in the 1990s

Blurring Marseille and Brightening Paris in Contested Processes of Boundary Making

Joseph Downing

, fitting with rap's propensity to create boundaries around neighborhoods. 4 Likewise, boundaries can also “blur” and become easier to cross, something that this article argues happens in the rap music of Marseille in the 1990s, which blurred the dominant

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A “Capital of Hope and Disappointments”

North African Families in Marseille Shantytowns and Social Housing

Dustin Alan Harris

“Eighty thousand foreigners live in Marseille, of whom 51 percent are North African. What is life like for these people? Where do they live? Where do they work? What is being done by the government, municipality, and private organizations to

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"The Best Avenue of Escape"

The French Caribbean Route as Expulsion, Rescue, Trial, and Encounter

Eric T. Jennings

Can exclusion and rescue constitute the two faces of a same coin? How did the door slam shut on maritime rescue schemes in 1941? How precisely did Varian Fry and HICEM spirit refugees stranded in Southern France to the new world? In answering these questions, this article delineates and analyzes the sinuous routes that led to the emigration of thousands of refugees from Marseille to the French Caribbean in 1940-1941. It exposes some of the ambiguities of this project—including the comparable conditions of refugee internment in Vichy France and in Martinique—and its ultimate undoing. It delves into the encounters and synergies that the exodus engendered, and explores the perspectives of some of the refugees and Martiniquais whose paths crossed.

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An Inconvenient Expertise

French Colonial Sailors and Technological Knowledge in the Union Française

Minayo Nasiali

France's largest cargo companies. But when he disembarked in Marseille, he found himself stranded for over two years. No shipping company would hire him. Following World War II, major changes in international shipping saw new technologies transform entire

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Photography, Identity, and Migration

Controlling Colonial Migrants in Interwar France and Senegal

Johann Le Guelte

indigenous sailors on board French commercial ships. In Marseille, picture IDs were already being issued for every colonial sailor, with a copy of that card sent to the colonies in order to verify the subject's identity. According to the Ministry, it was

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“Purely Artistic”

Police Power and Popular Culture in Colonial Algerian Theater

Danielle Beaujon

, Mahieddine had organized metropolitan tours for his troupe beginning in the 1920s, always including a stop in Marseille, the point of entry to mainland France for most Algerian migrants. 53 Immigration law shifted throughout the early twentieth century, with

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Roll Out the Barrel

French and Algerian Ports and the Birth of the Wine Tanker

Owen White

in a small number of tanks had crossed the Mediterranean to Marseille, apparently without attracting much attention. 9 But the importer who planned to use the Tunisien to bring 3,500 hectoliters from Tunis to the port of Sète at the start of 1934

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The Origins of the Stanley Hoffmann We Knew

Some Comparisons on his Vichy Years with My Family Story

Peter Gourevitch

Switzerland, and had been living in Washington since 1935. Dated 6 July 1940, the telegram said, “Whole family authorized visit United States. Contact American Consul Marseilles. See you soon here. Emma.” The family got the visas and headed for Lisbon to reach