In 2014, Italian local government was affected by two key events: the passage of the Delrio law, which drastically reforms areabased government (i.e., provinces, municipal unions, and metropolitan cities) in the expectation that future constitutional reform will eliminate provinces entirely, and the rationalization program drawn up by Carlo Cottarelli, the special commissioner for the review of expenditure, which has profoundly affected the role of local authorities in owning and operating public utilities companies. This chapter traces the processes that led to these two reforms and, in doing so, elucidates the factors that motivated each reform.
Sonia Bussu and Maria Tullia Galanti
Entre enjeux locaux et perspective globale
This article discusses the circulation of francophone news, information, and literary content between Western Europe and North America in the nineteenth century. During this period, big metropolitan cities (Paris, Brussels, Montreal, New Orleans) were forming a dense media network. For the western Atlantic region, New York City and the Courrier des États-Unis (1828–1938) served as the hub of this network. Francophone readers on both sides of the Atlantic shared a large common corpus, including works such as Eugène Sue’s Mystères de Paris (1842–1843), which was distributed in North America by the literary supplement of the Courrier. By providing a general overview of this French-speaking network, this article invites scholars to explore how texts, and literature in particular, operated through an interlinked dynamic system of publication rather than as independent unconnected works.
“Traffic Congestion in the Metropolitan City of Kolkata” Journal of Infrastructure and Development 6, no. 1 (2014): 43–59. 3 David Arnold, Everyday Technologies (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013).
Moving a Container Ship through Darkness
lively, buzzy lights of a metropolitan city. In contrast, and only when the vessel approached the Shanghai port, the dispersed quality of city lights produced an “inversed landscape” of dullness extorted by fog and darkness. 56 Disappointingly for many
Cycling, Gender, and Class in Postsocialist China
Hilda Rømer Christensen
, Hangzhou in southeast China introduced a rental bike system, and in 2011, the city already boasted one of the world’s best public bicycle services. Metropolitan cities such as Shanghai and Guangzhou also introduced their own pubic bicycle rental services
Imagining Refugia: Thinking Outside the Current Refugee Regime
Nicholas Van Hear, Veronique Barbelet, Christina Bennett and Helma Lutz
subject to the laws of both Refugia and the Somewhereland host state. Some Refugians live in discrete territories or spaces; others live side by side with Somewherelanders, especially in large , metropolitan cities. 4 Moreover, the citizens of
Living in Peace and Conflict in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh
Nasir Uddin and Eva Gerharz
“tribal” and so, as Willem van Schendel explained, are regarded as “savage,” “primitive,” “pre-literate,” and “uncivilized” (2011: 20–25). Even those Pahari adivasi people who live in metropolitan cities, and who are sophisticated, well recognized