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Two Patterns of Modernization

An Analysis of the Ethnic Issue in Israel

Shlomo Fischer

material and symbolic resources. Origins of the Ethnic Problem in Israel: Differences in the Modernization Experience The Modernization of Eastern European Jews The roots of the dissimilar approaches of Ashkenazim and Mizrahim to the construction of the

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Lazy Labor, Modernization, and Coloniality

Mobile Cultures between the Andes and the Amazon around 1900

Jaime Moreno Tejada

Battle of Angoteros. 31 A rush of nationalism followed this event, and the distant Amazon frontier became the focus of Quito’s modernizing fever. 32 A society of patriots, the Junta Patriótica Especial, was created among the highland bourgeoisie to pay

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Pınar Melis Yelsalı Parmaksız

Girls might regret only not having been born as male. —Statement in the official newspaper Ulus (Nation), 1939 This article is an inquiry into the gender regime of Turkish modernization, with a focus on the single-party era of the Turkish Republic

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L'État éducateur politique dans les campagnes du dix-neuvième siècle

Lectures franco-méditerranéennes d'Eugen Weber

Gilles Pécout

This article explores the role of the state as a vector of political acculturation in the French and Euro-Mediterranean countryside in the nineteenth century. It begins with a consideration of the importance of the reciprocal images of peasants and elites. It goes on to discuss how the terms "modernization" and "modernity" have been called into question, largely on account of how historians have deployed arguments originating in the disciplines of economics and anthropology. Finally, it examines how the debate about the role of the state in rural politicization, based on readings of Eugen Weber's classic book, Peasants into Frenchmen: The Modernization of Rural France (1870-1914), goes beyond the simple question of the efficiency of the administration and opens up a wider inquiry into the virtual integration of people into the state and the role of rural elites in mediating between the local and the national.

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Les Assurances Sociales

une contribution à la modernisation de la société française dans l'entre-deux-guerres?

Bruno Valat

The 1930 law creating social insurance was the Third Republic's great achievement in the social arena. However, the historiography of contemporary France contains barely a trace of this achievement. Victim of the regime's discredit as well as of the lack of any reformist political efforts in its favor, social insurance of the 1930s has also suffered by comparison to later achievements, particularly the creation of Social Security in 1945. However, if we study social insurance in its own historical context—and not in reference to the postwar period—, it can constitute an original source for the study of the modernization of French society. This article proposes three approaches: social insurance constitutes a vector for the acculturation of the working class to retirement and to the medicalization of health, contributing to the history of working class uses and representations of consumption and social rights. On a more institutional level, the experience of social insurance reveals the first legal experiments with co-gestion involving employers, workers, and insurance organizations. Finally, a prosopographical study of the militant trajectories linked to social insurance could contribute to the history of the working-class movement between 1930 and the end of the Thirty Glorious Years: is there a "social insurance generation" within French syndicalism?

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Richard York, Christina Ergas, Eugene A. Rosa, and Thomas Dietz

We examine trends since 1980 in material extraction in China, India, Indonesia, and Japan—which together contain over 40% of the world's population—to assess the environmental consequences of modernization. Economic and population growth has driven rapid expansion of material extraction in China, India, and Indonesia since 1980. China and India exhibit patterns consistent with the Jevons paradox, where the economic intensity of extraction (extraction/GDP) has steadily declined while total extraction grew. In Indonesia, extraction intensity grew along with total extraction. In Japan, total extraction remained roughly constant, increasing somewhat in the 1980s and then slowly declining after 1990, while extraction intensity declined throughout the entire period. These different patterns can be understood to some degree by drawing on political-economic and world-systems perspectives. Japan is an affluent, core nation that can afford to import materials from other nations, thereby avoiding escalation of material extraction within its borders. China and India are rapidly industrializing nations that, although increasingly drawing on resources from beyond their borders, still rely on their own natural resources for growth. Indonesia, an extraction economy with less global power than the other nations examined here, exports its own natural resources, often unprocessed, to spur economic growth. The trends highlighted here suggest that in order to avert environmental crisis, alternative forms of development, which do not involve traditional economic growth, may need to be adopted by nations around the world.

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Irina Kosterina

In this article I examine the situation of girls in the North Caucasus, a region that combines features of both a traditional society with its emphasis on the value of religion, family, and older generations, and a modernized society with its emphasis on the economic emancipation of women, and the pursuit of self-development and individual life strategies. The research model used interviews with girls and an analysis of essays written by girls in high school to explore their life values, priorities, and the impact of religion and traditions on their lives. The research also sought to identify girls' place in the gender, age, and status hierarchies of local societies.

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Catherine Mei Ling Wong

In East Asia, climate change as a policy concern has been a late developer. The last decade, however, has seen the mainstreaming of environmental issues in core policy circles, but in the form of market-friendly, pro-industrial development framings. This paper problematizes such environmental framings by looking at the politics of state-led ecological modernization and the institutional reforms that have emerged out of it. It argues that State-led ecological modernization necessarily leads to environmental framings that are too narrowly defined by state and industrial interests - hence the focus on carbon emissions, energy security and the impact on Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The State-driven assumption that society can modernize itself out of its environmental crisis through greater advancements in technological development also ignores the fact that this process often leads to the creation of other environmental and social problems, which in turn undermines the fundamental goals of stability and sustainability. Civil society needs to be given greater space in the policy and framing processes in order to have a more balanced policy approach to environmental reform in a more equitable way.

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Migration and Modernization in China

One Family's Sacrifice

Arianne Gaetano

Last Train Home (guitu lieche 归途列车) 2009. Produced by Mila Aung-Th win and Daniel Cross (executive producers) with Bob Moore (co-producer) and Zhao Qi (executive producer). Directed by Lixin Fan. Documentary. Cast: Changhua Zhan, Suqin Chen, Qin Zhang, Yang Zhang, Tingsui Tang (as themselves).

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Jonathan Anuik

Melissa Bingmann. 2015. Prep School Cowboys: Ranch Schools in the American West. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. 256 pp. ISBN 978-0826355430