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Doing <em>bizness</em>

Migrant smuggling and everyday life in the Maghreb

Line Richter

Drawing on extensive fieldwork among Malian migrants and connection men, this article investigates the sociality of facilitating migrant journeys and illegal border crossings in the Maghreb. Dominant discourses portray smugglers as participating in highly organized networks of unscrupulous people taking advantage of innocent migrants. I counter such narratives by zooming in on West African migrants involved in the facilitation of illegal border crossings. This bizness consists of ensembles of temporary practices and relations embedded in everyday life with linkages to historical and regional practices of brokering and hosting. This perspective invites us to move conceptually from focusing on different (stereo) types of smugglers to considering smuggling practices; to make sense of the phenomenon, we need to pay less attention to fixed social positions and more to the transient social poses adopted by those involved.

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Pierre Bonte

Kinship and alliance studies are a significant part of anthropological work related to the Arab and Muslim world, but they tend to focus primarily on rural and tribal societies rather than on contemporary evolutions (urbanisation, migrations, etc.). This article centres on the construction of these new anthropological objects and uses multidisciplinary data to define its field of study: Muslim family law reforms, demographic transition, the evolution of women's condition, etc. The rising age of first-time brides is an important variable. It is one of the general aspects of reforms in current Muslim states, and these reforms are having a certain impact on the French statute law. At stake, as is often the case in anthropological research, is the question of women's choice regarding marriage. In contemporary contexts, the fact that women continue to commit to proximity consanguinity marriages underlines the persistence of the social and cultural determinations of marriage.

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Lowry Martin

gendered— that confine, configure, and conscript. These films from and about Morocco contest traditional ideas of masculinity and sexuality, and they contribute to a growing queer visibility that stretches from the Maghreb to the Gulf. I begin my analysis

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150 Years of Algerian Painting

Relevance for Understanding the Postcolonial Situation

François Pouillon

Precisely because the Maghreb rejects if not the contribution at least the spirit of the colonial period and claims to have access, above and beyond that period, to more ancient continuities, it invites the observer to meditate on certain constants we had lost sight of, and on the temporal vicissitudes that affect those constants. — Jacques Berque, 1965

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Martin Thomas

Focusing on the gendarmerie forces of the three French Maghreb territories, this article explores the relationships between paramilitary policing, the collection of political intelligence, and the form and scale of collective violence in the French Empire between the wars, and considers what, if anything, was specifically colonial about these phenomena. I also assess the changing priorities in political policing as France's North African territories became more unstable and violent during the Depression. The gendarmeries were overstretched, under-resourced, and poorly integrated into the societies they monitored. With the creation of dedicated riot control units, intelligenceled political policing of rural communities and the agricultural economy fell away. By 1939 the North African gendarmeries knew more about organized trade unions, political parties, and other oppositional groups in the Maghreb's major towns, but they knew far less about what really drove mass protest and political violence: access to food, economic prosperity, rural markets, and labor conditions.

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Adolfo Campoy-Cubillo and Esther Bendahan

This interview with the Sephardic novelist and translator Esther Bendahan provides unique insights into the historical events that surrounded the collapse of Jewish communities in Morocco during the second half of the twentieth century. Bendahan's knowledge of the social and political realities that informed Sephardic cultural production in Morocco, her ability as a scholar to interpret their significance in the wider context of Sephardism in the Maghreb, and her priceless insights as a first-hand witness of the diasporas triggered by the independence of European colonies throughout North Africa make her account and interpretation of these events extremely valuable. This interview pays special attention to the many ways in which Sephardic cultural production was, and remains, different from European traditions while simultaneously presenting itself as an intermediary between the East and the West.

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Modernity, Ḥadātha, and Modernité in the Works of Abdallah Laroui

Conceptual Translation and the Politics of Historicity

Nils Riecken

translating modernity into what has come to be known as “contemporary Arab thought” (Arabic al-fikr al-ʿarabī muʿāṣir , French la pensée arabe contemporaine ), that is, the intellectual production of self-critique in the Maghreb and the Mashreq since the

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Queering Virginity

From Unruly Girls to Effeminate Boys

Eftihia Mihelakis

openly gay writers of the Maghreb and sets out to “demystify Arab Muslim masculinity and sexuality” (147) in order to fill in the cavernous gap in research on male virginity, particularly “masculine queer virginity in the Arab Muslim societies of North

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Entre Algérie et France

Écrire une histoire sociale des Algériens au vingtième siècle

Muriel Cohen and Annick Lacroix

« indigènes » en est une illustration (Hannah-Louise Clark). Reste qu’au-delà de l’échelle politique et administrative imposée par la métropole, l’histoire des Algériens prend également sens à l’échelle du Maghreb, du monde arabe ou musulman. Les études qui

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Agricultural Fire or Arson?

Rural Denizens, Forest Administration, and the Colonial Situation in Algeria (1850–1900)

Antonin Plarier

constituted themes already marked out by metropolitan foresters. They formed a conceptual “toolbox” that adapted perfectly to the Algerian situation. From this point of view “the environmental myths of the Maghreb,” to quote Diana K. Davis, would benefit from