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Class Conflict in Ancient Mesopotamia

Between Knowledge of History and Historicising Knowledge

Reinhard Bernbeck

In this article I provide a critique of historiography in Near Eastern archaeology and argue that forms of narrating the past are by necessity always political in nature. Current writing styles have a bias towards the upper classes of the past. I use this insight to elaborate on new ways of writing that shift the focus to different subjects of history. As a case study, I analyse discourses about evidence from fourth millennium Mesopotamia. Finally, I point out some alternative ways to approach historiography by asking new questions about old topics.

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Fair Exchange

Utilisation of Working Animals (and Women) in Ancient Mesopotamia and Modern Africa

Jill Goulder

Distribution map of modern studies of sub-Saharan Africa used (© Jill Goulder, 2016). Setting the Scene: Working Animals in Ancient Mesopotamia Domestication of animals for work constituted a new paradigm in human–animal relations, with a focus on individuals

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The ‘Frame’ at Adab

American Archaeological Misbehaviour in Late Ottoman Iraq (1899–1905)

Jameel Haque

Chicago's expedition to Adab, discussed in Crossen's article, there was only one other US-led dig in Mesopotamia. That dig's administrators encountered conflict with the Ottoman state and had to cooperate in order to survive. The University of Pennsylvania

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Efraim Inbar and Ian S. Lustick

A Debate between Efraim Inbar and Ian S. Lustick

Time is on Israel's Side Efraim Inbar

From a realpolitik perspective, the balance of power between Israel and its neighbors is the critical variable in the quest for survival in a bad neighborhood. If Israel’s position is improving over time and the power differential between the Jewish State and its foes is growing, then its capacity to overcome regional security challenges is assured. Moreover, under such circumstances there is less need to make concessions to weaker parties that are in no position to exact a high price from Israel for holding on to important security and national assets such as the Golan Heights, the settlement blocs close to the “Green Line,” the Jordan Rift, and particularly Jerusalem.

With a Bang or a Whimper, Time Is Running Out Ian S. Lustick

Israel’s existence in the Middle East is fundamentally precarious. Twentieth- century Zionism and Israeli statehood is but a brief moment in Jewish history. There is nothing more regular in Jewish history and myth than Jews “returning” to the Land of Israel to build a collective life—nothing more regular, that is, except, for Jews leaving the country and abandoning the project. Abraham came from Mesopotamia, then left for Egypt. Jacob left for Hauran, then returned, then left with his sons for Egypt. The Israelites subsequently left Egypt with Moses and Joshua, and “returned” to the Land. Upper class Jews who did not leave with the Assyrians left with Jeremiah for Babylon, then returned with Ezra and Nehemiah.

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Pushkar Sohoni

state backing in the case of the Congo, and the third was a state operation toward military ends. While there are other examples, such as the large baggage trains of the British Indian Army drawn by cattle and oxen in Mesopotamia in World War I, these

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Marcel Mauss

Mesopotamia. Their cousins, children of Horus and Akkadians, had already conquered these lands. These patriarchs are involved in all sorts of affairs of political, material and – as one could already tell – financial interests. x , 12 We are a long way from

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Constructing Difference and Imperial Strategy

Contrasting Representations of Irish and Zionist Nationalism in British Political Discourse (1917–1922)

Maggy Hary

real danger—51 battalions in Ireland, 18 in England, 3 on the Rhine, 4 in Silesia, 1 at Gibraltar, 3 at Malta, 2 at Constantinople, 2 in Palestine, 7 in Egypt, 2 on the sea, and 4 or 5 in Mesopotamia and in Persia. There is a distribution of troops

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Gilad Ben-Nun

of a “Refugee” and a “Migrant Foreigner” To claim that the theme of migration is associated with the Jewish Torah would be an understatement. Abraham's life begins with his migration from Mesopotamia to the holy land via Asia Minor. Driven by

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Rob Boddice, Christian J. Emden, and Peter Vogt

religious discourse from Mesopotamia and Egypt to Aeschylus’s Oresteia and Ovid’s Metamorphoses . Through the competition between Minerva and Arachne, the latter sets the stage for the way in which talk of networks always intertwines normative ideals and

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Jonathan Magonet

to multiple borrowings within the Book of Proverbs itself from collections of similar materials from Egypt and Mesopotamia. Whether the studying or collecting of proverbs was confined to scribal schools or reflects domestic or village contexts