This article examines the process of symbolisation in the images of women in Soviet cinema. It argues that during the Great Patriotic War (1941–1945) many female characters served as symbolic representations of the country itself, of Mother Russia, determined to defeat the enemy and ready to endure hardships and to cope with deprivation and grief. The start of the resistance against Nazi Germany called for many more depictions of women than was typical in the thoroughly masculinised culture of the 1930s. At the same time, wartime images of women were quite abstract: they recalled posters and often relied on a symbolically charged mise-en-scène.
The Return of Mother Russia
Representations of Women in Soviet Wartime Cinema
Ambiguous Attachments and Industrious Nostalgias
Heritage Narratives of Russian Old Believers in Romania
of a bittersweet feeling. In the Old Believers’ ethnic media publication, Zorile magazine, the cultural and political theme of ‘mother Russia’ (V. Ivanov 2011: 3 ) is often featured in articles. The publication relies on contributions of members of
Motherhood and Survival in the Stalinist Gulag
, 2004); on the association of women with maternity in Russia, see Joanna Hubbs, Mother Russia: The Feminine Myth in Russian Culture (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993). 5 Engel, Women in Russia , 175. 6 Ibid., 158–165. For discussion of