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Walter Bruyère-Ostells

Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte theorized Napoleonic Caesarism between 1832 and 1844, although he was only a child at the fall of the First Empire. He took into account the embedding of Napoleonic supporters in the broad-ranging Liberal party during the Restoration. Through personal relationships, he was particularly influenced by officers who bent the First Empire's doctrine towards liberalism during the Hundred Days and who engaged in national and liberal actions. In this respect, the fight for the unification of Italy was paramount. The new social networks (secret societies) and the events he himself took part in (such as central Italy's revolution of 1831) particularly inspired him. By taking up weapons, moreover, he appropriated the image of being his uncle's legitimate heir. That is why two generations of officers, including Italian officers, must be considered as transmitters of an inheritance that Louis Napoleon used to reflect on his Napoleonic legacy.

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The Cartoon Emperor

The Impact of Louis Napoleon Bonaparte on European Comic Art, 1848–1870

Richard Scully

Louis Napoleon Bonaparte (1808-1873), one-time President of the Second French Republic (1848-1852) and Emperor of the French (as Napoleon III, 1852-1870) exercised a profound effect on European cartoonists and the comic art they produced during his lifetime. As a real historical personality, Louis Napoleon feared the power of the cartoon to make him appear ridiculous and instituted one of the most effective and heavy-handed regimes of censorship of comic art in all European history. Beyond the boundaries of the French Empire, he pressured neighbouring states to protect his image in similar fashion, but in Britain and Germany and beyond, the cartoon Napoleon III became not only ubiquitous in the satirical press, but also served as a powerful touchstone for emerging national identities. The real Louis Napoleon's political and military influence was felt throughout Europe for over two decades, but his cartoon self was even more of a European phenomenon. Usually studied within national contexts, the 'Cartoon Emperor' needs to be studied transnationally in order fully to grasp his importance for developments in European history, as in European comic art.

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Republican Imperialisms

Narrating the History of “Empire” in France, 1885–1900

Christina Carroll

to disentangle, thanks to Napoleon III, who had sought to provide shape and substance to his imperial regime by associating himself with his uncle and by popularizing a new “theory of empire.” In the early years of his rule, Napoleon III described

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“Algeria for the Algerians”

Public Education and Settler Identity in the Early Third Republic

Kyle Francis

self-styled radical republicans in Algeria began to adopt anticlerical and secular political sentiments as part of a larger criticism of Emperor Napoleon III. In Algeria, however, this critique assumed particular urgency. Many French settlers had

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Biography and Shakespeare’s Money

Portraits of an Economic Persona

Paola Pugliatti

biographie, pourquoi, comment? L’example de Napoléon III’, Historiens et Géographes: Revue de l’association des professeurs d’histoire er de Géograaphie 413 (2011): 235–41,

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The Ill-Equipped Modernist

Historicizing Édouard Dujardin’s Les Lauriers Sont Coupés

Kelly J. Maynard

following the massive rebuilding undertaken by Napoleon III and Baron Haussmann and continued into the early Third Republic. First and perhaps best known, Haussmannization created a series of long, broad boulevards intended to facilitate transportation

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Demos and Nation

Misplacing the Dilemmas of the European Union--In Memory of Stanley Hoffmann

Charles S. Maier

I in 1813 and Napoleon III in 1870, or Balkan states against a splintering Ottoman imperium; war proved the quickest way to reinforce nationalist sentiments—and this despite the fact that ordinary foot soldiers often saw their own role as merely

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Allan Mitchell, 1933—2016

Volker Berghahn

between the two countries following the swift German victory over Napoleon III, the occupation of the Northern départements , the annexation of Alsace-Lorraine, and the imposition of reparations. It was all about French “revanchism.” To be sure, Allan

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Patrick Young, David Looseley, Elayne Oliphant, and Kolja Lindner

story Chrastil tells is an absorbing one. The confidence accompanying Napoleon III’s declaration of war on Prussia in July 1870 quickly gave way to panic, as the large and effectively mobilized Prussian army launched a series of successful offensives in

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John Gillespie, Kyle Shuttleworth, Nik Farrell Fox, and Mike Neary

to the Second French Empire and Napoleon III just as Sartre's early political consciousness was shaped by the Third Republic. For those struggling through the back roads and meandering pathways of Sartre's (often) arcane analysis in the Critique