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Samuel Awuah-Nyamekye

The rate of depletion of plants and animal species in Ghana has assumed an alarming dimension, and the government is finding it difficult to control the process. Several factors account for this. A major one is the neglect of the traditional ecological knowledge prevalent in the culture of Ghana. Sasa is the Akan word for the spirit believed to be found in some plants and animals. This paper examines the role of sasa in flora and fauna conservation in Ghana. Traditional Ghanaians have a strong belief that some plants and animals have special spirits, which when cut (as in the case with plants) or killed (animals) can bring serious harm to the person. Thus, such plants and animals are not eliminated. This paper argues that sasa as an Akan indigenous conservation tool can complement the modern means of nature conservation in Ghana.

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Stefan Heiland, Silke Spielmans, and Bernd Demuth

The article examines the relevance of demographic change for the development of rural landscapes, especially in Germany's shrinking regions. To date, no empirical investigations have undertaken the matter. Thus, the article is mainly based on literature analysis and the findings of expert workshops. The research indicates that demographic change does not have as strong impact on landscapes as other factors such as agricultural policy, climate change, and the promotion of renewable energies. Nonetheless, from the perspective of nature conservation, there might be some indirect effects caused by structural and institutional changes of administrations, which could lead to a decline in importance of landscape-related concerns. In addition, changes in environmental consciousness due to rising cultural diversity could lead to a different societal attitude toward landscapes and their values.

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Resources of Hope

Wicken Fen Stories of Anthropogenic Nature

Laura Cameron

Through a series of stories about the U.K. National Trust nature reserve known as Wicken Fen, this article seeks to contextualize the coining of the word 'anthropogenic' and to highlight some possible 'resources for a journey of hope' (to use the words of Raymond Williams). Although o en portrayed as 'wilderness' and the last wetland remnant of the drained Great Fenland, Wicken Fen is also acknowledged to be one of the most intensively managed reserves in the U.K. This article is therefore an exploration of human-made nature which seeks to understand what it might mean - and has meant - to live in the Anthropocene.

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Sabine Hofmeister

This article is based on the thesis that wilderness as a cultural value emerges where it has been lost as a geographical and material phenomenon. In Europe the idea of wilderness experienced a surprising upswing at the end of the twentieth and beginning of the twenty-first century, with wilderness tours, wilderness education, and self-experience trips into “wilderness” becoming widely established. Also, protection of “wilderness areas” which refers to such different phenomena as large forests, wild gardens, and urban wild is very much in demand. Against this background, the article looks into the material-ecological and symbolic-cultural senses of “wilderness” in the context of changing social relations to nature. Three forms of wilderness are distinguished. Adopting a socio-ecological perspective, the article builds on contemporary risk discourse.

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Jozef Keulartz

There has recently been growing interest in the role of metaphors in environmentalism and nature conservation. Metaphors not only structure how we perceive and think but also how we should act. The metaphor of nature as a book provokes a different attitude and kind of nature management than the metaphor of nature as a machine, an organism, or a network. This article explores four clusters of metaphors that are frequently used in framing ecological restoration: metaphors from the domains of engineering and cybernetics; art and aesthetics; medicine and health care; and geography. The article argues that these metaphors, like all metaphors, are restricted in range and relevance, and that we should adopt a multiple vision on metaphor. The adoption and development of such a multiple vision will facilitate communication and cooperation across the boundaries that separate different kinds of nature management and groups of experts and other stakeholders.

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Dieter Rink

Since about the 1980s shrinkage has become a new normality especially for European cities and urban regions. As a consequence of the shrinking process, new dimensions of wastelands appear in the affected cities. Urban planners have to find solutions for these “holes” in the urban fabric and new visions are needed for open spaces. In the last few years, the wilderness concept has emerged in the planning field and it has become a fashionable term, in particular in urban restructuring in eastern Germany. If wilderness is a usable concept for urban restructuring, can wilderness be a new structuring element for urban planning? This article analyzes the mechanisms of formation of wasteland in shrinking cities, and then focuses on related debates in urban planning as well as the debates in urban ecology and nature conservation research. The article concludes by considering different aspects of these debates and the question of which role wilderness can play in shrinking cities is discussed.

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Michael Connors Jackman and Adeel Khan

the Mediterranean is governed by multiple norms, operating at global and local levels. He states that the academic literature on nature conservation does not sufficiently explore the national and local impacts of conservation processes. He focuses on

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Dreams of Prosperity – Enactments of Growth

The Rise and Fall of Farming in Varanger

Marianne Elisabeth Lien

practices and nature conservation. In this article, I focus specifically on how relations between state and local people are formed through agriculture, and how idioms of farming as the proper way of ensuring viability in the north are intertwined with ideas

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Christian Hunold

wildlife ( Francis and Lorimer 2011 ; Hinchliffe and Whatmore 2006 ; Lulka 2013 ; Urbanik 2012 ; Wolch 2002 ) and the ongoing project to rethink nature conservation in the Anthropocene ( Lorimer 2015 ; Vogel 2015 ; Wapner 2013 ). Red-tailed Hawks

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Extractive Conservation

Peasant Agroecological Systems as New Frontiers of Exploitation?

Anne Cristina de la Vega-Leinert and Peter Clausing

Balance between Agricultural Production and Nature Conservation .” Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 5 : 477 – 483 , doi: 10.1016/j.cosust.2013.06.001 . Green , Rhys E. , Stephen J. Cornell , Jörn P.W. Scharlemann , and Andrew