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5. Transit Migration in Niger

Stemming the Flows of Migrants, but at What Cost?

Sébastien Moretti

Since 2015, the European Union has stepped up its efforts to curb irregular migration from sub-Saharan Africa through increasingly restrictive measures targeting transit countries along migratory routes, including Niger. While the EU has heralded the success of its policies to limit migration through Niger, EU migration policies have disrupted the economic system in Agadez, where transit migration has been one of the main sources of income and a factor of stability since the end of the Tuareg rebellions in 2009. This article discusses the impact that EU migration policies may have at the local level in countries of transit, and highlights the potential for these policies to fuel tensions between local and national authorities. The Agadez case study illustrates the importance of a multilevel approach to migration governance that takes into full consideration the role of local authorities and local communities in countries of transit.

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Blood oil

The anatomy of a petro-insurgency in the Niger delta

Michael Watts

This article traces the emergence of an “oil insurgency” in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. A key concept deployed in the analysis is the oil complex, understood as a sort of corporate enclave economy and also a center of political and economic calculation expressed through the operations of a set of local, national, and transnational forces that can only be dubbed as imperial oil. The operations of the oil complex under conditions of U.S. military neoliberalism create the violent and unstable spaces that David Harvey identifies as “accumulation by dispossession”. The insurgency is understood in terms of a deep history of political and economic marginalization and deepening political mobilization and militancy within the Niger Delta. What the oil complex has thereby produced is a fragmented polity with parcellized sovereignty rather than a robust, modern oil nation.

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In Memoriam

Pierre Bonte (1942–2013)

Jean-Pierre Digard

Membre du bureau éditorial d’Anthropology of the Middle East, Pierre Bonte s’est éteint le 4 novembre 2013 à l’âge de soixante-et-onze ans. Né le 25 août 1942 dans le nord de la France, au sein d’une famille de mineurs et d’instituteurs laïcs – il eut un grand-père, mineur, qui fut député communiste–, Pierre Bonte obtint son baccalauréat à Lille en 1960, puis une licence de sociologie et plusieurs certificats de psychologie à Paris en 1964. Intéressé par l’ethnologie, Pierre Bonte commença par étudier les Touaregs Kel Gress du Niger auxquels il consacra sa thèse de doctorat en ethnologie préparée sous la direction d’André Leroi-Gourhan puis de Robert Cresswell et soutenue à l’Université Paris V-Sorbonne en 1970.