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Objectification, Empowerment, and the Male Gaze in the Lanval Corpus

Elizabeth S. Leet

image that, like physical evidence, will resolve her lover’s legal troubles. The intersection between empowerment and objectification inherent in this portrait of the gaze characterizes every text in the Lanval corpus. Descriptions of each fairy

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The Return of Stolen Praxis: Counter-Finality in Sartre's Critique of Dialectical Reason

Christopher Turner

What is counter-finality? Who, or what, is the agent of counter-finality? In the Critique of Dialectical Reason, Sartre employs a complicated and multivalent notion of counter-finality, the reversal of the finality intended by an agent in different contexts and at different levels of complexity. Sartre's concept of counter-finality is read here as an attempt to rethink and broaden the traditional Marxist notion of commodity fetishism as a tragic dialectic of human history whose final act has yet to play out. The article analyses and explicates Sartre's complex concept of counter-finality, focusing on material antipraxis.

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The Wall, the Ban, and the Objectification of Women

Has “Uncle Sam” Learned any Lessons from “Typhoid Mary?”

Amani Othman and William W. Darrow

Abstract

Discrimination against women and other vulnerable groups prevailed throughout the twentieth century; it persists today. This historical case study analyzes the life and times of “Typhoid Mary,” an unmarried, Irish Catholic, immigrant woman who was persecuted as an intransigent carrier of a deadly infectious disease. Being a Mexican immigrant, Muslim, or unattractive woman could condemn someone for similar mistreatment today. The failure to overcome prejudice impedes the effectiveness of public health to protect infected patients and susceptible persons from harm and to interrupt disease transmission in communities; it jeopardizes the realization of social quality. Social justice, solidarity, equal valuation, and human dignity will be achieved through resistance to the human rights violations of the Trump administration and the resilience of strong women like Mary Mallon.

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Monstrous Masses

The Human Body as Raw Material

John Marmysz

objectification of other human beings, both men and women. Following this, I shall then argue that in films such as The Human Centipede (2009), Nymphomaniac (2013), and Videodrome (1983), where the boundaries of bodily objectification are pushed to an

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Ritual Infrastructure

Roads to Certainty in Two Brazilian Religions

Inger Sjørslev

ideas of the two religions and through comparison argue that certainty is generated through forms of objectification in both of them, albeit objectifications of very different kinds, one in the shape of gods, the other in the shape of money. Inspired

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Natives with jackets and degrees. Othering, objectification and the role of Palestinians and the role of Palestinians in the co‐existence field in Israel1

DAN RABINOWITZ

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Scenes of Subjection

Slavery, the Black Female Body, and the Uses of Sexual Violence in Haile Gerima's Sankofa

Z'étoile Imma

argue that Gerima's film reenacts the terrible banality of slave exploitation and significantly performs a consciously violent objectification of the Black female body that ultimately serves to highlight the transformative will of the enslaved Black

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Can a financial bubble burst if no one hears the pop?

Transparency, debt, and the control of price in the Kathmandu land market

Andrew Haxby

Abstract

This article concerns the formation of price in Kathmandu’s land market. In Nepal, land has been for generations the bedrock of savings and household finance, an objectification of social status and a subject of intense political debate, up to and including the recent Maoist insurrection. In Kathmandu, however, the meaning of land has begun to change, mostly because of the rapid fluctuations in its monetary value. This article demonstrates how residents have used localized understandings of price and value formation to explain these changes, understandings that take as their reference point historical landlord-tenant relationships and not the machinations of market equilibrium. This article interrogates the notion that the market animates price, instead arguing that price can index a multitude of value formations.

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'Celebrities of the Future'

Fame and Notability in Henry James's Roderick Hudson and The American

Páraic Finnerty

This article examines Henry James's deployment of imagery of statuary, performance, and display to foreground conflicts between emergent forms of notability and older ideas of aristocratic renown, and his use of the figure of the American in Europe to draw attention to the complex intersections of nationality and gender in constructions of public recognition. Roderick Hudson (1875) positions the eponymous American sculptor as a lion in Europe, but reveals his fatal attempts to transcend the objectification and commodification accompanying fame. In The American (1877) Christopher Newman is briefly lionized by a French aristocratic family, but afterwards publicly spurned. Both novels contrast the fate of American men with the successful use of mechanisms of fame by women. Roderick Hudson's Christina Light successfully markets her beauty, becoming through marriage a figure of aristocratic renown, while The American's Noémie Nioche negotiates her rise in the world through self-promotion, finally passing as a noblewoman.

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The (In)visibility of the Iberian Lynx

From Vermin to Conservation Emblem

Margarida Lopes-Fernandes and Amélia Frazão-Moreira

Not much is known about how the cultural image of predators has been constructed in Western contexts and changed through time. This article reviews representations of lynx in Western Europe. A ‘cultural map’ of lynx in historical contexts is presented, and the ‘social visibility’ of the Iberian lynx in Portugal explored. Since prehistoric times the lynx has been an inspiration, an amulet, a creature gifted with extraordinary capacities but also a food item, and a ‘vermin’ to eliminate. Recently, the Iberian lynx has become a global conservation emblem; once a noxious predator, it is now a symbol of wilderness. Examples show how the species acquired visibility and has been appropriated in contemporary contexts such as logos, ‘green’ marketing, urban art or political campaigns. There is also evidence of a new identity construction in Portuguese rural areas where lynx is being reintroduced, exemplifying a process of objectification of nature.