Using the concept that landscapes are ideas formed by viewers about their physical surroundings, this article examines visitors' landscape perceptions of two peripheral regions of Europe: Gyimes in the Romanian Eastern Carpathians, and Las Hurdes in the Northern Extremadura of Spain. Both are characterized by exceptional, historically-evolved cultural landscapes and a population that culturally or ethnically differs from the national mainstream surrounding them. Based on literature review, expert consultations, and a questionnaire survey conducted in the research areas, I conclude that due to historical developments, socio-economic settings, and ethnic differences, the outsiders' view of these landscapes can be strongly distorted. In the tourist, misinformation and wishful thinking create a “mental map” that does not represent reality. I also note that along with having a possible impact on inhabitants' landscape perception and their strong regional identity, the outsiders' view might influence policy decisions and therefore the general development of a region.
Japan’s internal cohesion and external conflict with neighbors
Robert W. Compton Jr.
unpack what outsiders view as peculiar customs and social norms and their impact of domestic and international affairs. Clearly, the book noted that internal harmony comes at the expense of international effectiveness and perceptions. Japan as a closed
Marco Solimene, Mariann Vaczi, Paul Manning, Bozena Sojka, Stephen Quilley, Anna Zhelnina, and Aimar Ventsel
contexts need to distance ourselves to have a vision that is uncontaminated by too much familiarity. But how to achieve this freshness of the outsider's view? We do get glimpses of how to do this in Chapter 6 (188–194), for example, when the authors analyse