Like the world around it, the late Ottoman Empire was caught up in a period of unprecedented change. It was buffeted by challenges including new ideologies, unprecedented foreign capital flows, covetous neighbors, zealous missionaries, and new
Space, Time, and Text
Benjamin C. Fortna
citizens” by the Ottoman Empire in the early twentieth century. In the ideologically charged setting of the wartime Ottoman Empire, the state enforced a strict sex regime in which only procreative sex within an opposite-sex marriage was viewed as acceptable
‘Jews’in Late Tudor England and the Ottoman Jews
Josè Alberto Rodrigues da Silva Tavim
Álvaro Mendes – the Duke of Metilli referred to by Shapiro – whose role in Elizabethan England helps to illustrate the precarious presence of Jews in Shakespeare`s London, as well as his influence on English politics vis-à-vis the Ottoman Empire and Spain
The Example of a Gypsy/Roma Group in Modern Iran
Elena Marushiakova and Vesselin Popov
This article presents the community of the Romanies/Gypsies called the Zargar, who live in contemporary Iran. For centuries the Zargar had not been aware of the existence of other Gypsies. Only nowadays, with the means of modern telecommunications, including the Internet, have representatives of the Zargar 'discovered' that there are other Roma in the world, and they have begun looking for their place within the international Romani community. Lacking a clear memory of their own past, the Zargar are trying to construct such a history and an extended identity, while establishing contact with their 'kin' in Europe.
L’urbanisme et la Civilisation selon Ebüzziya Tevfik (1849–1913)
This article examines an eminent Ottoman journalist's writings on urbanism. Ebüzziya Tevfik, a polyvalent intellectual of the late Ottoman Empire, was a pioneer in the field of printing and was also known as a prolific writer. In the aftermath of the Young Turk Revolution of 1908, he penned some 26 articles on urbanism. This corpus reflects Ebüzziya Tevfik's perception of urbanism as a question of civilisation.
Eleni Gara, M. Erdem Kabadayı, and Christoph K. Neumann, eds., Popular Protest and Political Participation in the Ottooman Empire. Studies in Honor of Suraiya Faroqhi, Istanbul: Istanbul Bilgi University Press, 2011, x + 364 pp., TL 25.00 (hb), ISBN 978-605-399-226-4.
Eric R. Dursteler, Renegade Women: Gender, Identity, and Boundaries in the Early Modern Mediterranean, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2011, 239 pp., US$55.00 (hb), ISBN 978-1-4214-0072-3; US$25.00 (pb), ISBN 1-4214-0072-3.
The Ottomans were descended from one of the many clans of Turkish nomads who swept westwards from the steppes of Central Asia and decisively defeated the enfeebled Byzantine Empire at the battle of Manzikert in 1071. The tribesmen converted to Islam and then slowly expanded their grip on Byzantine territory in Anatolia.
Empire was never an important concept in Ottoman politics. This did not stop Ottoman rulers from laying claim to three titles that may be called imperial: halife, hakan, and kayser. Each of these pertains to different translationes imperii, or claims of descent from different empires: the Caliphate, the steppe empires of the Huns, Turks, and Mongols, and the Roman Empire. Each of the three titles was geared toward a specific audience: Muslims, Turkic nomads, and Greek-Orthodox Christians, respectively. In the nineteenth century a new audience emerged as an important source of political legitimacy: European-emergent international society. With it a new political vocabulary was introduced into the Ottoman language. Among those concepts was that of empire, which found its place in Ottoman discourse by connecting it with the existing imperial claims.
The Presence of the Past in the Era of the Nation-State
Christians and Jews as well as Muslims could thrive as traders and professionals and could ascend to the highest levels of political authority and influence. The demise of the Ottoman Empire in the nationalist wars of the early twentieth century gave rise to
Public Discourse in Interwar Yugoslavia on the Status of Women in Turkey (1923–1939)
After the gradual retreat of the Ottoman Empire from the Balkans and its eventual fall, the Balkan countries and their peoples had a keen interest in the events unfolding within the defunct empire’s successor state. Tectonic political changes in