Are the highest politicians better qualified than their peers? In this article, we analyze differences between chancellors, vice chancellors, and ministers of the inner or residual cabinets of the German federal governments between 1949 and 2009 with respect to their social backgrounds and educational, economic, as well as political human capital. Different statistical methods reveal no clear primacy of chancellors or vice chancellors over other members of government. Interestingly, inner cabinets have higher qualifications than residual cabinets, as well as partly chancellors and vice chancellors.
Katrin Scharfenkamp and Alexander Dilger
From Biography to History
East European women-politicians at the time—she was hated because of her gender, for being a successful woman in politics. 60 Gender as an issue did have activists and an audience in the interwar period, not just in the political sphere, but in social
This article examines the complex interplay between the American military governor and German political leaders through an analysis of two crises that occurred over the making of the Basic Law. Why did a trial of strength between General Lucius Clay and the Social Democratic Party leadership in March and April 1949 come about? Understanding Clay's intervention in the politics of constitution-making in occupied Germany requires a more probing investigation than references to the temperament of a “proconsul” or a bias against a left-wing party. The analysis of Clay's intervention in this account shows how the Social Democrats evaded and challenged directives from the occupation authorities, and illuminates the limits of his influence over German framers of the Basic Law.
Comparing German Party Responses to the Euro Crisis
resolution mechanisms is not always the main concern of reelection-seeking politicians. I propose instead that officials may have incentives to deliberately withhold or delay emergency measures in an effort to win a mandate for more comprehensive policy
Foreign Policy Beliefs and German Parliamentarians’ Support for European Integration
A. Burcu Bayram
foreign policy or isolationism? This study provides a systematic investigation of the effect of foreign policy beliefs on German mp s’ support for European integration. A sizable body of research has examined the determinants of politicians’ attitudes
The methodological implications of “studying up” in Pakistan
annual revenue, many were politicians (or had close family members who were), and several had close ties with senior military leadership. Most of my male informants had been educated in foreign universities in the United Kingdom, the United States, or
the Jewish identity of the state with many unexpected dilemmas and controversies over the nature of the relationship between the individual and the new state. During the1950s, politicians from all political parties were concerned not only about
Astrid M. Eckert
Saskia Richter, the author of the first scholarly biography of the Green politician Petra Kelly, died in August 2015, age 37, after a four-year battle with cancer.
Castelao in Galician Graphic Biography
. Castelao: O home finishes with a quote by the writer and politician Marino Dónega (1916–2001) that describes him as more than a man – as a symbol: ‘Castelao xa é patrimonio do pobo galego. No pobo tiña a súa ragaña nutricia e ó pobo perténcelle para
The Reclaiming of Girls’ Education Discourses in Malala Yousafzai’s Autobiography
, her campaign against the Pakistani Taliban, or Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP), their attack on her in October 2012, and her move to the United Kingdom. Having blogged, lobbied politicians, and spoken publicly since a young age, Yousafzai was propelled