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L'État éducateur politique dans les campagnes du dix-neuvième siècle

Lectures franco-méditerranéennes d'Eugen Weber

Gilles Pécout

This article explores the role of the state as a vector of political acculturation in the French and Euro-Mediterranean countryside in the nineteenth century. It begins with a consideration of the importance of the reciprocal images of peasants and elites. It goes on to discuss how the terms "modernization" and "modernity" have been called into question, largely on account of how historians have deployed arguments originating in the disciplines of economics and anthropology. Finally, it examines how the debate about the role of the state in rural politicization, based on readings of Eugen Weber's classic book, Peasants into Frenchmen: The Modernization of Rural France (1870-1914), goes beyond the simple question of the efficiency of the administration and opens up a wider inquiry into the virtual integration of people into the state and the role of rural elites in mediating between the local and the national.

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Politicizing the Transnational

On Implications for Migrants, Refugees, and Scholarship

Riina Isotalo

This article discusses the politicization of the transnational paradigm in terms of development and security, refugee and migrant regimes, and transnational practices. The analysis makes two principal arguments. The first is that diasporas and mobility in general have been both securitized and developmentalized. These two processes are intertwined but also contradictory. While migration is seen as a development resource, 'uncontrolled' population flows—particularly of refugees—are looked upon as security threats by states and policy makers. This duo-faceted approach is at the root of the politicization of the transnational paradigm. The second argument of this text is that this politicization and the neo-liberal mega-trend are also entwined, despite the fact that the scholars who introduced transnationalism to migration research saw it as reflecting a process of globalization 'from below'.

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Claudia Mitchell and Jacqueline Reid-Walsh

We take the title of our editorial introduction to this themed issue of Girlhood Studies from Sandrina de Finney’s lead article in which she explores “alternative conceptualizations of trauma, place, and girlhood that might enact a more critical, politicized girlhood studies.” Contributions to this issue offer what the guest editors refer to as a re-description of girls in crisis. In so doing not only do they offer challenges to definitions of crisis, they also deepen our understanding of what transformative practices might look like. From a consideration of Indigenous girlhood in Canada to a study of country girls in Australia, from work on YouTube to Holloback! and other social media platforms to girls’ digital representations of their own safety, and from changes in newspaper discourse about murdered girls to a consideration of work done with incarcerated girls, we are invited to re-think this notion of girls-in-crisis, and its significance.

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Franca Maino

A year ago, assessing the health-care situation, Enza Caruso and Nerina

Dirindin wrote: “The year 2007 can only be described as a positive one

for health in terms of planning, given the great number of programs

launched, commissions and councils put in place, and protocols of

agreement signed by the Ministry of Health. Finance within the health

sector was also notable for complying with the health pact and the rigorous

control of public accounts backed up by deficit reduction plans,

which regions under financial warning had to observe scrupulously or

be put under compulsory administration.” The year 2008, however,

began and then continued with a shocking series of health-care mismanagement

cases, including the controversy over the appointment

procedure for general managers and chief medical officers of health-care

providers, the question of controlling health expenses, and the possible

compulsory administration of regions that are unable to meet deficit

reduction plans.

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Roger Karapin

Most explanations that have been advanced regarding the recent

successes of far-right parties in Western Europe suggest that these

parties should have also done well in Germany. With a high percapita

income and a strong export-oriented economy, Germany has

experienced large-scale immigration, a shift toward postindustrial

occupations, economic restructuring, unemployment, and social

marginalization of the poorest strata. These socioeconomic developments

have been accompanied by political responses which

should also benefit the far right: political parties have lost credibility, non-voting has increased, and ecological parties have become

established and have spurred environmental, feminist, and proimmigrant

policies.

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Massimiano Bucchi and Federico Neresini

“We are not afraid of dismantling privilege and have scientists in the

streets, demonstrating and turning in their lab coats and test tubes. I

would like to ask these scientists what great discoveries they have

made. We will probably find out that they haven’t discovered very

much, while so many young researchers are excluded from pursuing

careers.” The words are those of Minister for Education, Universities,

and Research Letizia Moratti, commenting a few months after loud

protests by a large number of Italian scientists against the decision by

the government to restructure research agencies. The protest represented

an important stage of a phenomenon that was without precedent

(not only in Italy) until only a few years ago: the mobilization of

scientific researchers. It also was the most salient moment of an elaborate

public debate on the problems of scientific research in Italy that

carried on throughout 2003. The debate had a number of important

implications, touching on issues such as insufficient investment in

research; the so-called brain drain, that is, the inability to retain competent

researchers, who leave Italy to work in foreign institutes; the

growing dissatisfaction of younger generations with established scientific

research; and the need to remain internationally competitive in

areas of productivity and innovation.

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“Your debts are our problem”

The politicization of debt in Azerbaijan

Tristam Barrett

feudal class order, then here we see in the politicization of debt a moment in the struggle for hegemony of an emergent class seeking to impose and stabilize a new common sense of the state against an authoritarian one. Azerbaijan's oil and banking boom

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Beyond citizenship

Adivasi and Dalit political pathways in India

Nicolas Jaoul and Alpa Shah

,” workers and peasants, women, and so on) under the banner of emancipation. However, since their organizations are composed of “untouchables” exclusively, it rapidly became a politicized equivalent of the official term “Scheduled Castes,” designating those

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Los Roldán and the Inclusion of Travesti Narratives

Representations of Gender-Nonconforming Identities in Argentinian Telenovelas

Martín Ponti

(Berkins 2010). Thus, travesti aligns to politicized identities that reject binary gender and sexual expressions within a corporal trans-feminine gender expression. Travesti activists underscore their dual rejection of a dichotomous logic to biological sex

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Protesting in Pandemic Times

COVID-19, Public Health, and Black Lives Matter

Binoy Kampmark

stance drew accusations for their selectivity. Science, went this argument, had been politicized by progressive politics, endangering the public while selectively favoring some protesters. To date, empirical and anecdotal studies on the protests in the