Ian Shapiro identifies three traditions of democratic thought: aggregative, deliberative, and minimalist. All three are apparent in the Pacific Islands despite most commentators and donors assuming that the meaning of democracy is fixed. The focus in development studies on institutions and their capacity to deliver pro-poor growth has generated a fourth tradition that revolves around the now pervasive governance concept. Rather than focusing on the general will of a sovereign people, this perspective is predominately concerned with the legitimate use of violence as a precursor to any development-orientated democratic state. Having reviewed the literature on democracy in the Pacific to parse out these four meanings, this article concludes that paying greater attention to this ideational equivocality would extend discussions about the suitability and transferability of this type of regime.
Comparable Practices, Contested Meanings
“Savagery” and “Civilization” in the Australian Interwar Imaginary
Following World War I, the Pacific Islands became increasingly accessible to the average Australian with improvements in transportation and the growth of trade and business, Christian outreach, and colonial administration in the region. Economic
Noa Noa, Manao Tupapau, and Gauguin’s Legacy in the Pacific
Paul Gauguin has earned his place as one of the most significant artists of the European avant-garde. His works have also traveled to the postmodern Pacific, taking on roles outside his original artistic project. As an index of the tourist fantasy of Tahiti, adorning postcards and advertisements for cruise ships, Gauguin's paintings in a popular context underscore the intertwined histories of colonialism and exoticism. As a powerful symbol of imposed identities, they have also become one site of many for politicized response through the production of creative works by indigenous scholars, artists, and activists. The critical discourse on the artist, therefore, needs to shift: while continued art historical analysis of the artist's work is still needed, scholars should also account for the various sociopolitical arenas that Gauguin's work inhabits in the twenty-first century. Considering Gauguin's relationship to a variety of nineteenth-century vernacular productions, both written and visual, as well as the current popular reproduction of his works and appropriation by indigenous artists and writers, the language of photography and its role as material culture provides a rich model through which to re-examine his work. This essay argues that Gauguin's work and legacy are both productions of travel, and objects that have traveled to the present.
Lady Annie Brassey’s Curated Collections
Alison Clark, Catherine Harvey, Louise Kenward, and Julian Porter
Lady Annie Brassey (1839–1887) was a well-known Victorian travel writer who was also a collector, photographer, ethnographer, zoologist, and botanist and who traveled around the world aboard the privately owned yacht the Sunbeam. During these voyages she amassed a collection of approximately six thousand objects. Much more than tourist souvenirs, the collection shows a rigorous academic understanding of the disciplines she was collecting within. The ethnographic material, which makes up one-third of the collection, has gained little attention. Using her travel writing as a primary source, this article will interrogate Brassey’s role as the maker of this collection, someone whose class allowed her to travel and to pursue museum collection, curation, and education to a near-professional level. Through three case studies this article will consider how she collected and curated her own museum and used her collection for public benefit.
Mining, corporate social responsibility, and the “life market”
Jerry K. Jacka
Over the last 20 years, Papua New Guinea has been at the center of a resource development boom as mining, petroleum, and logging companies extract the rich resources of this tropical Pacific island. As 97 percent of the country is owned by customary groups who correspondingly receive benefits from extraction, resource development has the potential to integrate local communities into the global economy in beneficial ways. Often, though, this is not the case, as small factions of landowners control the bulk of development proceeds. In this article, I examine the development of a coffee growing scheme adjacent to the world-class Porgera Gold Mine, intended to help local people who are marginal to mining benefit streams. Tragically, however, instead of engaging in coffee production, many disenfranchised young men in Porgera prefer to work in the “life market”—a term they use to describe tribal warfare in which groups not receiving benefits attack benefit-receiving groups in the attempt to extort monetary payments. Not only are individuals' lives at stake in the life market, but so too are the economic conditions—coffee and gold mining—that allow the life market's very existence.
James L. Flexner
well as the importance of such collections for archaeological interpretation ( Harrison et al. 2013 ). Archaeologists’ sensitivities to provenance, provenience, and context show the ways that we might interpret past mobilities among Pacific Island
Contextualizing the Bishop Museum Hale Pili Exhibit through Archaeological Analyses
Jennifer G. Kahn
material culture styles from the Pacific Islands not found elsewhere, partly due to the fragile nature of organic objects and their inability to preserve in tropical contexts. Yet the importance of the Bishop Museum collections is mitigated by the fact that
Mobilities and Mobilizations in the Pacific
Pacific Island peoples continues to be a subject of debate. One key dispute questioned whether Islander ancestors could have sailed intentionally across the deepwater Pacific. These are very much settler questions, inquiries into whether ancient peoples
Mobility and the Geographical Imaginaries of Interwar Australian Magazines
Victoria Kuttainen and Susann Liebich
eleven advertisements for sea travel, featuring destinations in Europe (mostly Britain), South Africa, North America, and the Pacific Islands. Four are full-page, colorful adverts for travel to Java, “the Garden of the East,” via Surabaya, Semarang
The Ho‘omaka Hou Research Initiative at the Bishop Museum
Mara A. Mulrooney, Charmaine Wong, Kelley Esh, Scott Belluomini, and Mark D. McCoy
of the First Radiocarbon Date from the Pacific Islands .” Journal of the Polynesian Society 123 ( 1 ): 67 – 90 . Kalfatovic , Martin R. , Effie Kapsalis , Katherine P. Spiess , Anne Van Camp , and Michael Edson . 2009 . “ Smithsonian