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Pegida in Parliament?

Explaining the Failure of Pegida in Austria

Farid Hafez

in parliament, 21 which led to the first government with a far-right coalition partner lasting until 2007. Since 2008, the fpö and other right wing populist parties such as the splinter bzö (Bündnis Zukunft Österreich, or Alliance for the Future

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Radical Right-Wing Populists in Parliament

Examining the Alternative for Germany in European Context

Lars Rensmann

parliament since the Nazi era. This caesura potentially marks a critical juncture: the beginning of a new, centrifugal and polarized era in German electoral and parliamentary politics, and the transformation of Germany’s postwar political culture at large

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Carlo Fusaro

On 4 December 2016, a large majority of Italian voters turned down the most comprehensive and cohesive attempt to revise significant parts of the Constitution since 1948, namely, to overcome the country’s symmetrical bicameralism, to establish new state-region relations, and to streamline institutions, in part by abolishing the provinces and the National Council for Economics and Labor. This chapter offers an outline of the reform, which had been boldly approved by Parliament, and places it within its political and institutional context. It identifies the changes that the reform was set to introduce, attempts to assess the effects it would have had if it had been passed in the referendum, and considers some of the consequences of its rejection.

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Sovereignty versus Influence

European Unity and the Conceptualization of Sovereignty in British Parliamentary Debates, 1945–2016

Teemu Häkkinen and Miina Kaarkoski

Parliament and the monarch. 1 This concept is especially relevant for understanding British policy on European integration, and some studies have rightly argued that a discourse framework is highly relevant for understanding British policy toward Europe. 2

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Nationalism and Internationalism Reconciled

British Concepts for a New World Order during and after the World Wars

Antero Holmila and Pasi Ihalainen

contemporary uses of international, internationalism , and superstate as opposed to national, nationalism (oft en also patriotism or national interests ), and national sovereignty in the British parliament and press in connection with the ratification

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Philip Daniels

The fifth elections to the European Parliament were held in Italy on

13 June 1999 against a background of domestic political turbulence.

The centre-left government of Massimo D’Alema, which had

taken office in October 1998, was inherently tenuous, based as it

was on a broad, multi-party majority including several MPs who

had been elected with the opposition centre-right coalition in the

1996 national elections. At the same time, the party system was

still highly fluid: new parties and political formations were entering

the electoral arena and party identities and electoral alliances

were characterised by instability. This turbulence in the party system

was manifest in the 1999 European elections in which twentysix

parties and movements presented lists, many contesting

European elections for the first time. In contrast to the majoritarian

mechanisms used in national parliamentary and local elections,

the proportional electoral system used for European elections, with

its relatively low threshold for representation, encourages the proliferation

of party lists and offers few incentives for the parties to

form electoral alliances.

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Maoz Rosenthal

while supporting the coalition ( Strøm 1998 ). Indeed, empirical literature has shown that this can actually be the case in multi-party parliaments ( Fortunato et al. 2017 ; Kim and Loewenberg 2005 ). Yet as parties’ policy positions become more diverse

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Andrea Pedrazzani and Luca Pinto

In November 2011, when the Italian sovereign debt crisis reached its peak, the Berlusconi IV government was replaced by a “caretaker” cabinet headed by Mario Monti. Composed exclusively of non-partisan ministers, the Monti government represents a clear deviation from how parliamentary democracies are generally expected to work. This chapter analyzes the activity and functioning of the Italian Parliament during the 13 months in which Monti remained in office. Compared to the previous government, we find that, quantitatively, the legislative production between the two executives is not significantly different, although the legislative process during the Monti government appears to have been faster. Not surprisingly, from the qualitative point of view, the bills passed during the caretaker government focused mainly on economic topics. Our findings suggest that the apparent broad consensus on Monti's agenda masked important differences between the main parties that supported the government.

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Giliberto Capano and Marco Giuliani

During the course of 2002, political news frequently focused on the

formal procedures and the informal dynamics of the workings of the

Italian Parliament. In a number of striking cases—international letters

“rogatory,” false accounting, “legitimate suspicion,” the “objective

law,” the conflict of interests, the law of delegation on employment,

the sending of troops abroad, and so on—journalists have had to

adapt their vocabulary, usually very careful of internal party and interparty

equilibria but superficial when it comes to parliamentary matters,

to the novelty of the subject at hand. However, it is not only

because of these headline stories that the country’s most important

representative institution deserves closer analysis. Parliament and its

relationship with the second Berlusconi government have created a

series of expectations over the past year: a form of political bi-polarity

free of “underhanded dealings” and “about-turns”; a tough battle

between a government coalition comforted by its parliamentary

majority and an opposition reunited in its struggle against the common

enemy.

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Hugo Bonin and Aleksandra Konarzewska

One Swallow Does Not a Spring Make Pasi Ihalainen, The Springs of Democracy: National and Transnational Debates on Constitutional Reform in the British, German, Swedish and Finnish Parliaments, 1917–1919 (Helsinki: Finnish Literature Society