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Jonathan G. Katz

the city's pasha, Thami al-Glaoui. With the establishment of the Protectorate two years later, her example as the first French woman doctor in Morocco prompted the Resident General Hubert Lyautey (1912-1925) to recruit other women physicians. 2 Much

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The Olive Grove of Rome

Romanization and the French Colonial Imagination in Nineteenth-Century Tunisia

Jessica Biddlestone

director of agriculture in the French protectorate, to render the arid soil of central Tunisia productive by recreating the “Olive Grove of Rome.” 2 In an 1893 report, Bourde outlined the colonization scheme and provided a historical rationale for olive

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Prelude to Colonialism

Moroccan Muslims and Jews through Western Lenses, 1860–1912

Michael M. Laskier

dominated Algeria for fifty years since 1880 and secured a protectorate in Tunisia (1881), began to contemplate greater encroachment of the Sharifian Empire. Some British observers who had intimate ties with the Foreign Office thought that all efforts to

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Magda Veselská

The Jewish Museum in Prague (JMP) was founded as an association in 1906.2 The largest expansion of its collections occurred in tragic circumstances during the Second World War, when almost all the Judaica, books, manuscripts and archival documents of the former Jewish religious communities in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia were gathered in the depositories of the Central Jewish Museum in Prague.3 At the time, the museum was administered by the Jewish religious community in Prague, which was put under so-called ‘national trusteeship’ after the end of the war.4 In 1949, with a view to maintaining the completeness of the museum’s collections, the legal successor to the pre-war Jewish communities – the Council of Jewish Religious Communities in the Czech Lands (hereafter cited as the Jewish Council) – definitively renounced its restitution claims to items that had been shipped to the museum during the war.

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The Office de la Famille Française

Familialism and the National Revolution in 1940s Morocco

Margaret Cook Andersen

application in the empire. 4 This article therefore investigates the extension of Vichy’s National Revolution to Morocco, a protectorate where social conditions made the National Revolution’s family platform particularly appealing. Prior to 1940, Morocco had

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Hilary Pomeroy

Alliance Israélite Universelle schools in the second half of the nineteenth century. Thanks to their familiarity with the French language, Jews could henceforth adapt to the French Protectorate established in 1912, although a substantial proportion of

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Debating the “Jewish Question” in Tunisia

War, Colonialism, and Zionism at a Mediterranean Crossroads, 1914–1920

Chris Rominger

On 12 November 1918, one day after the armistice ending World War I, a violent incident unfolded in Tunis, the capital of Tunisia. Tunisia had been a Protectorate of France since 1881 and was home to more than 100,000 soldiers and laborers who

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administrative body in the hopes that it would encourage French population growth, something they considered to be essential to the preservation of French interests in the protectorate. The FFO dispensed a variety of financial benefits to French families

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From Forced Conversion to Marranism

Crypto-Jews in Morocco and Their Fate

Paul B. Fenton

extraction and converts of recent date, bearing in mind that conversions to Islam under duress continued to occur as late as 1912 when, during the horrendous pogrom in Fez following the establishment of the French Protectorate, several families apostatised to

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Introduction

France’s Great War from the Edge

Susan B. Whitney

could reach an agreement over Morocco. French control of Morocco was accepted by Germany in return for the transfer to Germany of French territory in the Congo and the protection of German business interests in Morocco. 11 Morocco became a protectorate