Although the title of "Righteous among the Nations" has been awarded in Israel since 1963, foreign governments did not show any interest in this commemoration until the late 1990s. Since then, however, a growing number of European governments have adopted the term. Of all the countries to which this commemoration has spread, the French government's appropriation of the Israeli terminology may have gone the farthest, forging a new national commemorative expression: the "Justes de France." This essay explores how the French lexical appropriation has taken place, paying particular attention to the role played by Jewish rescuers in this process. In doing so, it seeks to introduce a new perspective into the current debate on the transnationalization of memory: to what extent do the different states interested in the commemoration of the "Righteous," in this case Israel and France, speak the same language and whose language is it?
From Jerusalem to Paris
The Institutionalization of the Category of "Righteous of France"
Righteous Gentiles and Courageous Jews
Acknowledging and Honoring Rescuers of Jews
Since 1962, Yad Vashem, Israel's national Holocaust memorial, has pursued a program to honor non-Jewish rescuers of Jews during the Holocaust. Basically, every non-Jewish person who saved at least one Jewish person, while placing his or her own life and freedom at risk, and exacted no payment as a precondition for such help, and the story's evidence is confirmed by beneficiary party—then such a person may qualify to the traditional Jewish title for non-Jews, of Righteous Among the Nations. To date, some 23,500 persons, from all walks of life have been awarded this prestigious title. However, while many of these honorees worked in tandem with Jewish rescuers, no similar program exists for the latter. Recent Holocaust historiography has uncovered stories of many Jewish rescuers, who either worked individually or in conjunction with Jewish clandestine organizations, to save dozens and hundreds of their coreligionists. In doing this, they multiplied the risks to themselves as Jews on the run, of being uncovered by the Nazis and suffering the fate reserved for all Jews under the Final Solution program. This article underlines the need for the creation of a program to identify and acknowledge the role of Jewish rescuers to Jews.
Relatable Motives and Righteous Causes; or, Why the Sympathetic Antihero is Not a Moral Psychological Mystery
://doi.org/10.1177/0093650217699934 . 10.1177/0093650217699934 Haidt , Jonathan. 2012 . The Righteous Mind: Why Good People Are Divided by Politics and Religion . New York : Pantheon . Haidt , Jonathan , Fredrik Bjorklund , and Scott Murphy
Are “the Natives” Educable?
Dutch Schoolchildren Learn Ethical Colonial Policy (1890–1910)
Elisabeth Wesseling and Jacques Dane
Dutch schoolchildren of the righteousness of the Ethical Policy. Wielding the tools of rhetorical analysis, 10 we explore the persuasive strategies adopted by these educative discourses, which hinged on attributing a certain degree of educability to the
The Threefold Cord of Ecclesiastes
thought at one time in traditional terms of divinely ordained justice for the righteous and the wicked [3:17], but his acute observations of the world had undermined that picture. He saw that wickedness flourished [3:16] and God did not intervene [4
Indian-Jewish Shrine Hopping in Israel
The “Multisensoriality” of Religiously Defined Practice, Emotion, and Belief
Bene Israel, to several tombs of tzaddikim (“righteous persons”) and to the Cave of the Prophet Elijah in the Galilee region in northern Israel. It explores how the neoliberal idea of entrepreneurial competitiveness may actually assist in mobilizing
The Role of Religion in Public Life (2006)
‘Ein Tzaddik Ela Memaheh’, ‘no-one can pretend to be a Tzaddik – righteous – unless one is ready and willing to intervene in the affairs of the world’. I open with this particular Talmudic phrase because I believe that in many respects this teaching is key to the role of religion in society.
Enemies and Scapegoats
This article is about natsionalizm as an instrumental concept used manipulatively in the Soviet state by the ruling elite. It argues that accusations of natsionalizm in the Soviet Union served a particular purpose of manipulation and punishment. An instrumental character of accusations turned the victims into enemies and sacrificial scapegoats in order to prove the righteousness of the Soviet society. This article uses case studies from the recent history of one of the Russian republics, Republic of Sakha (Iakutiia).
John Rayner as Preacher
The Sermon in Response to Historical Events
John Rayner certainly believed that delivering regularly a carefully prepared sermon was an integral and important component of the rabbi's role. The evidence is in his more than 1,000 sermon texts that serve as an important historical source for Liberal Judaism in the U.K. Rayner helped future scholars by preparing a detailed listing of all his sermons, from 21 June 1953 ('Ordination') to number 1,137, on 5 October 2003 (Kol Nidre: 'The People's Self-Righteousness'), including topical indices at the end. After describing more fully this unique resource, I will focus on some of his topical sermons, especially those not published in A Jewish Understanding of the World. These include thoughtful and courageous analyses of moral issues raised by the British role in the 1956 Suez campaign, near the beginning of his career, and in the Falklands War of spring 1982, and many powerful sermons on Israel in times of crisis. The texts reveal a Jewish leader with prophetic courage — though expressed always with love for the Jewish tradition, the Jewish people and the universalist dimension of Jewish values — combined with profound knowledge and penetrating intellect, expressed with clarity and directness that speaks both to the mind and to the heart.
The War that Took Place in Germany: Intellectuals and September 11
The epigraph seems to border on hyperbole: were the debates in the
fall of 2001 really “exclusively” subsumed by domestic politics? But
Bassam Tibi, one of the hundreds of experts who made the rounds
on the endless talk shows and conferences in Germany, may be on to
something. In a recent book about how the public intellectuals, religious
leaders, and celebrities reacted to the terror attacks of September
11th, Der Spiegel essayist Hendryk Broder made a similar point as
he aimed his bittersweet satirical wit at the navel-gazing, self-righteousness,
and hypocrisy of Germany’s public intellectuals.2 Broder’s
book is a self-conscious example of that timeless German genre, the
Streitschrift, an erudite polemic in the service of both noble edification
and less high-minded settling of scores with one’s intellectual
opponents. Although exaggerated, one-sided, and terribly funny,
Broder’s analysis of the German public discourse of the fall of 2001
does contain some serious arguments that anyone interested in the
European perception of America cannot ignore. In this essay, I will
sketch the contours of that reaction by focusing first on the kinds of
issues that preoccupied German intellectuals in the wake of the
attacks of September 11th; second, I will contrast that reaction to how ordinary Germans and government officials perceived those
events; third, I will explore the role that anti-Americanism played in
the intellectual debates of fall 2001; and finally, I will reflect on the
significance of September 11th for German society in general.