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Whose Business is Road Safety?

From a Fragmented to an Integrated Approach in France and Europe (1972–1998)

Alice Milor

reference to the incompetence of drivers or infrastructure implied that the vehicle itself was not the key to improved safety. This tension was also present in 1970s Europe, and is connected to a segmented approach to road safety that partitioned the vehicle

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Indigènes into Signs

Incorporating Indigenous Pedestrians on Colonial Roads in 1920s and 1930s French Indochina

Stéphanie Ponsavady

In Colonial Indochina, the introduction of motorized transportation led French authorities to focus their attention on the issue of pedestrian walking. The political and economic imperatives of the colonial state shaped the modern phenomenon of traffic, which isolated the indigenous body as a sign of otherness. The unruly indigenous pedestrian expressed a discursive and experiential crisis that questioned colonialism itself. This article invites us to examine the political potential of walking by considering Henri Lefebvre's notion of dressage and its limitations in a colonial setting through various examples, from French accounts of indigenous walking in daily activities to political disruptions of traffic by pedestrian demonstrators and the incorporation of indigenous bodies in road safety policies. Repeatedly, colonial subjects eluded, criticized, or undermined the rules of the road and the colony by the simple act of walking.

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Road Safety: An Emerging Public Policy

Rodolfo Lewanski

Every year, road accidents entail enormous social and human

costs. Particularly alarming is the fact that during the 1990s, Italy

was incapable of improving the situation to the same degree as

other European countries. After a long period of inertia and lack of

interest, however, the Center-Left governments of the most recent

legislature have at last taken action. New policies set in motion

could reverse the trend, enabling Italy to respect the European

Union’s goal of achieving a 40 percent reduction in road mortalities

by the year 2010. Nevertheless, within the political system as a

whole, attention to the matter still appears limited, and there

seems to be no bipartisan consensus on the need to address the

problem. The Center-Right in particular, despite frequently

demanding “strong” state intervention in other matters such as

criminality (which nevertheless causes one-eighth the number of

deaths), appears to be strongly influenced by an individualist and

anti-state culture in this field.

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Motorists, Non-drivers and Traffic Accidents between the Wars

a Provisional Survey

Bill Luckin

This international overview focuses on the conflict between drivers and non- drivers in Britain, France, the United States, Germany, and Sweden during the interwar period. It suggests that on neither side of the Channel did pro-pedestrian movements make a major impact on national safety legislation. In the U.S.A. automobile-manufacturing interest groups undermined what they perceived to be threatening neighborhood opposition to the onward rush of the automobile. In Germany, which had earlier experienced high levels of anti-car activity, Hitler-inspired commitment to modernization nevertheless led, by the mid-1930s, to the consolidation of punitive measures against erring drivers. In Sweden, however, there appears to have been a high degree of complementarity between pro-motorism and policies designed to minimize dangerous driving. The paper concludes that an understanding of this “deviant“ position may be deepened through scrutiny of the values associated with the Swedish Social Democratic Workers' Party (SAP). A similar approach might be applied to the other nations discussed in the article.

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Safe and sound

Listening to Guns N’ Roses in the car

Simone Dennis

The idea that road safety could be secured using sound – particularly talkback radio and music – is fascinating. This paper explores Ford’s recent and unprecedented level of investment in car stereos in its 2018 models alongside the terrifying 2014 anti‐speeding commercial produced by the Northern Ireland Department of Environment (Road Safety). The commercial makes use of one musical track styled in two different ways to sonically represent safety and danger. Ford’s use of sound to create a feeling of safety for the driver, and the Department of Environment’s use of particular qualities of musical sound to craft ideals of safe and dangerous driving raise interesting questions: what is the relationship of sound to road safety? Why are specific qualities of sound related to safety and others to danger? I argue that conferral of safety (actual or fantastical) involves letting the dangerous world outside the car inside – even though we might think of safety as something we assure for ourselves by sealing out the external world, exercising control over it from our dashboards. I argue too that most explanations of why some qualities of sound assure safety obscure the workings of post‐Fordist regulation that is so ‘natural’ its power goes unnoticed.

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"A Denial of Our Boasted Civilisation

Cyclists' Views on Conflicts over road Use in Britain, 1926-1935

Peter Cox

In the interwar period, cyclists, the most numerous road users, came into increasing conflict with motorists. The debate around road safety and casualties reveals significant differences between the social and political capital available to different classes of road users, despite their legal equality. Drawing on the coverage of the conflict by the Cyclists' Touring Club (CTC) through their monthly Gazette and on the parliamentary record, this article examines how cyclists understood the problem of increasing accident rates and the solutions proffered in press and parliament to address them. The paper considers cyclists in terms of class, representation, power, and status. It further examines how these factors shaped perceptions of the issues at stake in the safety debate in relation to the governance of road space and the appropriate behaviors and responsibilities of road users.

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Editorial

Stéphanie Ponsavady

particular urban experience. Filling a gap in our approach to road safety in Europe, Alice Milor examines the role of car manufacturers and the ways they coordinated with public initiatives. She describes how they transitioned from a fragmented conception

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SeeClickFix Empowers Citizens by Connecting Them to Their Local Governments

Ben Berkowitz and Jean-Paul Gagnon

Users in Making Local Streets more Accessible, Safer .” 83degrees , 10 January . http://www.83degreesmedia.com/features/apps-engage-users-in-road-safety-011017.aspx . White , Patricia . 2012 . “ Making Political Anger Possible: A Task for Civic

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Combustion, Hydraulic, and Other Forms of Masculinity

An Essay Exploring Dominant Values and Representations of the Driver in Driverless Technology

Sarah Redshaw

Status Report on Road Safety (Geneva: World Health Organization, 2015), http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/road_safety_status/2015/en . 3 Raewyn W. Connell and James W. Messerschmidt, “Hegemonic Masculinity: Re-thinking the Concept

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“Our City is Ruined. Reason: Road Widening”

A Review Essay on New Mobility Studies, Social Sciences, and History

Gijs Mom

transport and urban planners (pivotal subjects of the two analyses discussed above) and the middle class in general appear as adversaries who seek to expel decrepit taxis from the roads. These forces (including the unions) often use a “road safety” argument