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“There Was No Genocide in Rwanda”

History, Politics, and Exile Identity among Rwandan Rebels in the Eastern Congo Conflict

Anna Hedlund

This article analyzes how the 1994 genocide in Rwanda is recalled and described by members of a Hutu rebel group, the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR) whose leadership can be linked to the 1994 atrocities in Rwanda. The article explores how individuals belonging to this rebel group, currently operating in the eastern territories of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), articulate, contest, and oppose the dominant narrative of the Rwandan genocide. Based on ethnographic fieldwork with members of the FDLR in a rebel camp, this article shows how a community of exiled fighters and second-generation Hutu refugees contest the official version of genocide by constructing a counterhistory of it. Through organized practices such as political demonstrations and military performances, it further shows how political ideologies and violence are being manufactured and reproduced within a setting of military control.

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The Contribution of Social Movement Theory to Understanding Genocide

Evidence from Rwanda

Aliza Luft

article combines primary fieldwork with secondary oral testimonies from participants in the Rwandan genocide as well as Human Rights Watch organization reports from the decade prior to, and during, the genocide to demonstrate how a social movement approach

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Rwandan Women No More

Female Génocidaires in the Aftermath of the 1994 Rwandan Genocide

Erin Jessee

Since the 1994 Rwandan genocide, the current government has arrested approximately 130,000 civilians who were suspected of criminal responsibility. An estimated 2,000 were women, a cohort that remains rarely researched through an ethnographic lens. This article begins to address this oversight by analyzing ethnographic encounters with 8 confessed or convicted female génocidaires from around Rwanda. These encounters reveal that female génocidaires believe they endure gender-based discrimination for having violated taboos that determine appropriate conduct for Rwandan women. However, only female génocidaires with minimal education, wealth, and social capital referenced this gender-based discrimination to minimize their crimes and assert claims of victimization. Conversely, female elites who helped incite the genocide framed their victimization in terms of political betrayal and victor’s justice. This difference is likely informed by the female elites’ participation in the political processes that made the genocide possible, as well as historical precedence for leniency where female elites are concerned.

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Rwanda and the Politics of Memory

Jutta Helm

This article examines the German response to Rwanda's genocide, an important concern that previous research largely has ignored. Like the United States, Great Britain, France (up to mid-June l994) and other powers, Germany chose the role of bystander, observing and condemning the genocide, but failing to act. At first glance, this might appear unsurprising. The frequently cited "culture of reticence" in foreign affairs would seem to explain this posture of inaction. However, a second look uncovers several factors that could lead one to expect a German engagement in efforts to halt the genocide. By l994, Germany had contributed military and medical units to ten humanitarian efforts, including two United Nations missions in Cambodia (1991-1993) and in Somalia (1992-1994). Moreover, the Federal Republic's staunch support for human rights, as well as its considerable diplomatic and foreign aid presence in Rwanda, might have suggested a visible response to the mounting evidence of genocide. Why did this not occur? Why was there so little public discussion of German obligations to take steps to halt the genocide? On the one hand, answers to these questions are important in order to test previous research on the factors that led to states' participation in humanitarian interventions. On the other, they are significant for the inner-German debate about history and memory. Can the memory of the Holocaust inform debates about Germany's international obligations? How and under what circumstances might considerations of political morality shape foreign policy decisions?

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Editorial

Benjamin Abrams and Giovanni A. Travaglino

contentious politics fields. She offers a thorough historical review of the literatures she recruits for this project before turning to a distinctive empirical analysis of civilian participation in the Rwandan genocide. The second article in this issue

Open access

Hatred Is Not Stronger Than Bonds

Social Relationships, Aversion to Harm, and Relational Exceptionalism

Jean-Philippe Belleau

the perpetrators of pogroms were people who knew their victims. Some also refused to rescue their endangered neighbors, as Kopstein and Wittenberg (2018 : 16) and Bartov (2018: 271 ) show. The Rwandan genocide itself is characterized by the

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Managing Mass Graves in Rwanda and Burundi

Vernaculars of the Right to Truth

Astrid Jamar and Laura Major

preservation in Rwanda ’, Genocide in Cambodia and Rwanda: New Perspectives 1 : 1 – 20 . Crossland , Z. 2013 . ‘ Evidential regimes of forensic archaeology ’, Annual Review of Anthropology 42 : 121 – 137 . Daley , P. 1991 . ‘ Gender

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A Checkerboard of Ethnoracial Violence

Loïc Wacquant

-structural approaches to the delivery of ethnoracial violence in the mold of Aliza Luft's (2015) work on the Rwandan genocide. Luft shows that categorical membership obscures behavioral variations in the perpetrator group ranging from killing to desistance to saving

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An Unaccountable Love

Healing and Sacrifice in Post-Genocide Rwanda

Nofit Itzhak

healing of members of a Catholic Charismatic community in Rwanda who suffered acute personal loss during and following the 1994 Rwandan genocide. I draw on two terms central to my interlocutors’ conception of their relationship to God—sacrifice and grace

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Avoiding Poison

Congolese Refugees Seeking Cosmological Continuity in Urban Asylum

Georgina Ramsay

asylum are contingencies through which cosmologies of the supposedly ‘natural’ ordering of human experience are constituted (ibid.). Research by Christopher Taylor (1999) in relation to the 1994 Rwandan genocide also points to the significance of