This article explores the continuing evolution of biennials, particularly those outside the traditional European/North American “centers”. From their early beginnings in Venice in 1895, biennials have become one of the most vital and visible sites for the production, distribution, and discussion of contemporary art. A “third wave” of biennials in the 1980s was part of a growing focus on a global “south”, and played a key role in redefining notions of center and periphery in the global contemporary art world. This article shows how the São Paulo, Sydney, and Istanbul biennials were part of these trends toward the “biennialization” of contemporary art, mass spectatorship, the interweaving of the global and the local, and the rise of a generation of nomadic curators and artists whose work exemplified these themes. It argues that the most recent editions of these biennials may reflect a further shift in the evolution of the biennial model: a possible fourth wave, where the biennial provides an international platform for local politics.
The São Paulo Biennial, the Biennale of Sydney, and the Istanbul Biennial
Introduction Bom Retiro is a district in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, which has received groups of international migrants since the end of the nineteenth century. Until the first half of the twentieth century, the majority came from European
To introduce recent historical research on railways in Brazil, the case of one of its states makes a useful example. Concentrating on railway history in São Paulo will permit a more historiographical and thematic point of view. The São Paulo state railway is of particular significance in Brazil. At 4,041 km in 1907, it accounted for more than one-fifth of the total extent of all Brazilian railways (17,605 km), well ahead of runners up in the states of Minas Gerais (3,932 km) and Rio de Janeiro (2,422 km).2 The state of São Paulo also led in cargo transportation. The São Paulo Railway Company alone transported 1.9 million tons of cargo. Among the six most profitable transportation companies in Brazil, four were in São Paulo: São Paulo Railway Company, Sorocabana Railway Company, Paulista Railway Company (Companhia Paulista de Estradas de Ferro) and Mogiana Railway Company (Companhia Mogiana de Estradas de Ferro). Doctoral theses and academic papers on the history of Brazilian railways have grown in the last ten years, and studies of São Paulo predominate.
When nineteen-year-old Beto 1 arrived in the small, rural town of Guariba after a four-day bus trip from São Luis, he was filled with nervous anticipation. Guariba, located in the fertile plains of the state of São Paulo, is a world away from São
Fabio H. Giraldo Jiménez and Alejandro Pimienta Betancur
*Full article is in Spanish
F. Cortés Rodas & F. Piedrahita Ramírez. (2011). De Westfalia a Cosmópolis. Soberanía, ciudadanía, derechos humanos y justicia económica global, Bogotá: Siglo del Hombre Editores - Instituto de Filosofía, Universidad de Antioquia.
M. Santos. (2007). O espaço do cidadão. 7ª ed. Sao Paulo: Editora da Universidade de Sao Paulo.
Media Arts on Wheels
Gisela Domschke and Lucas Bambozzi
Labmovel/Mobile Lab is a joint initiative developed in Amsterdam by the Netherlands Media Art Institute (NIMk) and in Brazil by Vivo arte.mov, an International Mobile Media Art Festival, with the support of Telefonica’s Program of Art and Technology (BR) and Th e Mondriaan Foundation (NL). It consists of specially designed street vehicles equipped with features of digital media developed in the cities of Amsterdam and São Paulo. In 2012, artists from both countries submitted residency proposals that integrated the development of art projects, workshops, and cultural events as the Mobile Labs went on tour in the Netherlands and Brazil.
Odiolândia (Hateland) is a video installation that showcases online comments from videos published on social networks about police actions carried out by the São Paulo municipal and state governments in an area of São Paulo, Brazil, known as
Jonathan A. Allan, Chris Haywood, and Frank G. Karioris
-Masculinist Perspectives ; Urban Photography in Argentina: Nine Artists of the Post-Dictatorship Era ; and the forthcoming The City as Photographic Text: Urban Documentary Photography of São Paulo . Additionally, he authored important books in film studies, such as
José Bonifácio and Temporal Experiences in the Luso-American World in the Early Nineteenth Century
Maria Elisa Noronha De Sá and Marcelo Gantus Jasmin
of traditional exemplarity. José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva was born in Santos, São Paulo, in 1763. At the age of twenty, he moved to Portugal, where he began his studies at the University of Coimbra. He graduated with a degree in philosophy and law
The Practice of ‘sharing’ in a New Age Variant of Umbanda
of an international Umbanda shrine house located in São Paulo and other Brazilian cities that also has offshoots in Portugal, Switzerland, Belgium, the United States, and Canada. The Temple’s expansion is closely related to its leader’s project of