Upon its publication in 1849, the British Admiralty's Manual of Scientific Enquiry: Prepared for the Use of Her Majesty's Navy and Adapted for Travellers in General appeared to represent a radical departure from the increasingly professionalized scientific societies. It invited travelers interested in scientific observation not only to practice the Admiralty's own methods for collecting scientific data, but also to send their results to Whitehall, contributing directly to the wealth of knowledge that represented Britons at the edges of the empire. Looking at the Manual within the context of its publication and marketing, this article examines how the Admiralty's popular guidebook legitimized its position as a popular scientific primer, and also how the Admiralty's reactions to the materials it received showed popular science as a site of cultural contention between institution and individual, ownership of and access to knowledge.
En Route with the 1849 British Admiralty's Manual of Scientific Enquiry
Erika Behrisch Elce
Translator : Nathan Bracher
In order to live and flourish, the human sciences need an entire ecosystem of universities, research centers, journals, publishers, bookstores, and readers. However, this ecosystem has been shaken by upheavals hitting universities, publishing houses
Michael S. Carolan
This article maps key epistemological and ontological terrains associated with biotechnology. Beginning with the epistemological, a comparison is made between the scientific representations of today, particularly as found in the genomic sciences, and the scientific representations of the past. In doing this, we find these representations have changed over the centuries, which has been of significant consequence in terms of giving shape to today's global political economy. In the following section, the sociopolitical effects of biotechnology are discussed, particularly in terms of how the aforementioned representations give shape to global path dependencies. By examining the epistemological and ontological assumptions that give shape to the global distribution of informational and biological resources, this article seeks to add to our understanding of today's bioeconomy and the geographies of control it helps to create.
This article starts with the observation that a sociological analysis of interactions concerning drugs cannot rely on accounts of drugs that were generated in the field because these accounts (such as the distinction between drugs and non-drugs or between intended effects and side effects) are shaped by strong interests. The article suggests two approaches to obtaining actor-independent accounts, both of which are based on comparisons. The first approach is a symmetrization of perspectives, which can be achieved by including the perspectives of as many different actors as possible as well as the abstract actors of science and law. The second approach starts from the definition of a problem that is contingent but grounded in practices of the field. In the case of drugs, this problem can be constructed as how laypersons can rate the identity and quality of specific things as unproblematic. In both cases, an ontological idea of the “drug as such” is replaced by a social-constructivist view of the drug, which at the same time takes the drug's materiality into account.
Stephanie A. Limoncelli
science instructors have explored a variety of experiential learning approaches that stretch along a continuum from short-term assignments to long-term advocacy projects, all of which could be included under the wide umbrella of community-based learning
Where Do the Twain Meet?
C. S. A. (Kris) van Koppen
Klintman, Mikael. 2017. Human Sciences and Human Interests: Integrating the Social, Economic, and Evolutionary Sciences . London: Routledge. Jetzkowitz, Jens. 2019. Co-evolution of Nature and Society: Foundations for Interdisciplinary
least in part through a strong reliance on science that is based on positivist foundations. This worldview demands an objective, concrete, impersonal reality that is measurable and “real” and tends to judge those views and opinions based upon local or
Werner Krauss, Mike S. Schäfer, and Hans von Storch
This special symposium grew out of a workshop held in Hamburg in 2011 (Krauss and von Storch 2012) and of a long-term interest in climate research as post-normal science. A decade earlier, Dennis Bray and Hans von Storch (1999) stated that the management of uncertainty and its extension into the political and social realm make climate science a case for post-normal science. Interpreting a survey among German and American climate scientists, they suggested that scientific policy advice is the result of both scientific knowledge and normative judgment.
Jaap Westbroek, Harry Nijhuis, and Laurent van der Maesen
Physics, through its original relationship to astronomy, has always been seen as the mother of all modern sciences, including the other natural sciences and subsequent human sciences. It holds itself to be the only science truly capable of
Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan (1817–1898) was a prominent South Asian reformer of Islam who focused on the reconciliation of science and Islam in his most influential texts. This article aims to analyze the implications of science becoming the dominant discourse in nineteenth-century South Asia for the conception of Islam and religion in general. Sayyid Ahmad is an intriguing example because he actively participated in religious as well as scientific discourses since as early as the 1830s. After a concise outline of his early writings, his stances toward science and reason shall be compared with his later writings, primarily those written after 1870, to uncover the impact of the increasing influence of science in South Asia during the latter half of the nineteenth century. In his later writings, Sayyid Ahmad accomplishes a complex effort of translation, claiming mutual compatibility of science and Islam. The question of how this influences his conception of Islam and religion will be addressed, exploring whether this process should be described as a mere adoption of foreign discourse? Or does it trigger transformative effects?