The importance of passenger transport companies to facilitating mass migration have generally been acknowledged. Their paradoxal role as obstructers of the same, being an integral part of our modern day border enforcement system, has received much less attention. This article analyses the use of transport companies by states to monitor and restrict migration. It focuses on the recent historiography of the role of shipping companies in regulating migratory movements during the long nineteenth century. It stresses the importance of acknowledging the influence that transport companies had on the enactment, enforcement, and evasion of human mobility controls in future research.
Space, Race, and Transoceanic Ties in the Settler-Colonial Pacific
The inauguration of a steamship route between Canada and Australia, described as the “missing link,” was envisaged to complete Britain's imperial circuit of the globe. This article examines the early proposals and projects for a service between Vancouver and Sydney, which finally commenced in 1893. The route was more than a means of physically bridging the gulf between Canada and Australia. Serving as a conduit for ideologies and expectations, it became a key element of aspirations to reconfigure the Pacific as a natural domain for the extension of settler-colonial power and influence. In centering the “white” Pacific and relations between white colonies in empire, the route's early history, although one of friction and contestation, offers new insights into settler-colonial mobilities beyond dominant themes of metropole–colony migration.
transport technology (the shipping container) and by the cargo concealed in it within this process. By focusing on an attempted, rather than achieved, return, this article argues, together with some recent scholarship on migration, 14 for the importance of
French and Algerian Ports and the Birth of the Wine Tanker
since the Great War. As Michael Miller has shown, the interwar years saw shipping companies demonstrate some creativity in their quest for profit by customizing ships to serve distinct purposes. (As examples Miller cites the special fleet that the Le
French Colonial Sailors and Technological Knowledge in the Union Française
In the 1950s, French shipping companies began to replace their old fleet of steamships with new diesel ships. They also began to lay off sailors from French Africa, claiming that the changing technology rendered their labor obsolete. The industry asserted that African sailors did not have the aptitude to do other, more skilled jobs aboard diesel vessels. But unemployed colonial sailors argued differently, claiming that they were both able and skilled. This article explores how unemployed sailors from French Africa cast themselves as experts, capable of producing technological knowledge about shipping. In so doing, they shaped racialized and gendered notions about labor and skill within the French empire. The arguments they made were inconvenient, I argue, because colonial sailors called into question hegemonic ideas about who could be modern and who had the right to participate in discourse about expertise.
Post-socialist container markets and the city
Caroline Humphrey and Vera Skvirskaja
This article discusses a vast, new and semi-legal marketplace of shipping containers on the outskirts of Odessa, Ukraine. It is suggested that such markets, which have sprung up at several places in post-socialist space where routes intersect, have certain features in common with mediaeval trade fairs. However, today's markets have their own specificities in relation to state and legal regimes, migration, and the cities to which they are semi-attached. The article analyzes the Seventh Kilometer Market (Sed'moi) near Odessa as a particular socio-mythical space. It affords it own kind of protection and opportunities to traders, but these structures may be unstable in a changing economic climate.
Preliminary Considerations of the Shipbreaking Industry in Bangladesh
Although shipbreaking—the taking apart of a ship—signals the end of the useful maritime life of a vessel, the process is also the beginning of the recycling and reuse of the ship's constituent parts and materials. The process, while economically and materially useful, is also fraught with hazard, to both the environment and the laborers who undertake the breaking down of the ship. This essay examines that process in Bangladesh, one of the most significant sites for global shipbreaking. Mobility is a central theme of this examination, as the concept connects numerous aspects of the study: the shipping industry, the impact of shipbreaking on the environment; international maritime policy; and local and international responses to the industry. The essay explores the interactions that arise out of the shipbreaking industry's mobility and material and the subsequent impact on the environment and people of southern Bangladesh.
How Pleasure Boaters Live the Swedish-Danish Border Area
The article deals with the question of how people as individuals live and simultaneously direct a border region in different ways. How are ordinary inhabitants' tactical choices and manoeuvring movements related to the organised space of two nation states and their mutual borderland? What is the analytical gain, if the borderland is a seascape with dwellers that are more maritime than territorial in their practices and views? Using Ingold's perspective of seafaring versus shipping and aspects of Deleuze/Guattari's nomadology, a cultural analysis is performed on a number of interviews with pleasure boaters in the Swedish-Danish Öresund Region. The striated and linear space of the nation state was found to be fundamental for how people live the border region. However, by its stress on heterogeneity and unpredictability the smooth space of wayfaring inhabitants is also a crucial factor for understanding how border regions come into being and change.
Evolution of Organized Crime Networks in the Russian Far East
Organized crime is not a new phenomenon in Russia; however, it differs in contemporary Russia significantly, in quality as well as in quantity, from its predecessors. Using the Russian Far East, especially the city of Vladivostok, as a case study, this article sketches the evolution of organized crime in the region during the last 20 years. Tracing interconnections between various criminal groups through time, the article shows that quick reactions to new market opportunities were essential for successful illegal entrepreneurship. Powerful local elites have emerged and monopolized particular sectors of the industry (especially the fishing and shipping business). The case studies illustrate the interlinkages between organized crime structures, big business, and the political aspirations of powerful individuals. This article is a proposition to move beyond the economic paradigm in organized crime research and to focus more intensively on the multiple functions organized crime groups carry out in contemporary Russia.
Viewed from a distance, a large container port looks like any other. Terminals and stacked containers are marked by a narrowing set of multinational operators and shipping companies. Fences project promises of security and safety that are often enacted by the local hires of global security firms. Perhaps longshoremen are visible locking a container into place aboard a vessel, although the docks of contemporary container terminals are more notable for the seeming lack of men at work. Critical scholars of supply chains are revealing the global logics behind such visible similarities in port economy and governance. While this work responds to the call of John Shaw and James Sidaway to recognize how “[ports] matter beyond being entities in and of themselves,” ports are also shaped by more proximate, sociocultural logics.