Are the highest politicians better qualified than their peers? In this article, we analyze differences between chancellors, vice chancellors, and ministers of the inner or residual cabinets of the German federal governments between 1949 and 2009 with respect to their social backgrounds and educational, economic, as well as political human capital. Different statistical methods reveal no clear primacy of chancellors or vice chancellors over other members of government. Interestingly, inner cabinets have higher qualifications than residual cabinets, as well as partly chancellors and vice chancellors.
Katrin Scharfenkamp and Alexander Dilger
Marco Sonnberger and Michael Ruddat
Commission 2012 ). With regard to the representativeness of the survey, neglecting mobile-only households could therefore be problematic, as mobile-only households hold specific sociodemographic characteristics ( Häder et al. 2010 ). The survey was conducted
Who Were These Men and Why Did They Not Crush Mass Protest in 1989?
Uwe Krähnke, Anja Zschirpe, Philipp Reimann, and Scott Stock Gissendanner
individuals and between generations, of sociodemographic characteristics, cultural and social setting, typical career biographies, effects of conforming and deviant behavior, and intra-organizational family ties. Additional information regarding institutional