pages or weekly supplements. 6 At the turn of the century, Russian political caricature flourished. 7 Working in the medium of stereotype and hyperbole, caricaturists both poked fun at international politics and crafted visual identities for Russia
Europe and East Asia in Russian Political Caricature, 1900–1905
This paper examines the presentation of female characters in dramatic roles, in which they appear as representatives of marginalized Jewish immigrants to Israel (olim hadashim, to use the Hebrew term). The two plays examined here were written as criticisms of Israel's double standards concerning the actual acceptance and assimilation of the 'welcomed and longed-for' immigrants, and have hitherto been examined from this perspective. A reading of these plays from the perspective of feminist critique shows that the representation of the central female characters suffers from a pattern of double stereotypical characterization; these characters are stigmatized and stereotyped both in the category of 'women' and in the category of 'unwelcome immigrants'. Thus, in some cases, counterproductively to the playwright's attempt to criticize Israeli institutions and hegemonic society, these representations reveal the stereotypical tendencies inherent in the playwright's own 'transparent' or 'unconscious' world view when it comes to female representation.
Encounters in the Public Space
This article discusses the reactions of Israelis in the public space to 'mixed families' that include members of Ethiopian origin, written from the perspective of members of such families. The findings reveal that Israelis still react to the dark skin color of Ethiopians in mixed families and that, in most cases, 'black colors white', that is, behavior toward the mixed family is determined mainly by the presence of its black member. The three typical responses are as follows: (1) expressions of surprise at the presence of an Ethiopian in the family, evincing a stereotypical view of Ethiopian immigrants and their place in Israeli society; (2) invasions of privacy that are perceived by the family members as greatly exaggerated when compared with Israeli norms; and (3) declarations of appreciation for/admiration of the 'white' partner in the family for 'lifting up' the 'black' person through a (supposedly) altruistic act. The major conclusion is that Israeli society has yet to accept mixed families that include Jews of Ethiopian origin as a normative category.
The Administration of Rape in Twenty-First Century France and England & Wales
Nicole Fayard and Yvette Rocheron
In France and England & Wales rape is now understood as a diverse social phenomenon. It is reported, counted, categorized, and dealt with by the authorities as a serious crime. Yet, despite notable initiatives intended to improve the conviction of alleged perpetrators, major hurdles for alleged victims remain. We show how rape is defined and prosecuted in France and England & Wales, and we use statistical analyzes to understand the scale of the problem, still largely unknown. We also discuss recent controversies (attrition rate;loicadre), exploring a culture of scepticism among police and judiciary that causes complaints to be dropped or downgraded to lesser crimes. Our interview material from France explores two difficulties: When is rape not rape? Did the alleged victim consent to the penetration? Finally we analyze the paradoxical role played by voluntary victim support groups that resist but also collude with a complex regulatory system that fails those who do not speak in legitimate codes.
The Polarity of the Proverbial Literature as a School of Wisdom
Ursula B. Rapp
and/or adulteresses who are considered to be ‘foreign’ women, since they do not belong to their own husband, but to another (4:16–22; 7 and more); or the book also speaks of ‘good’ and ‘bad/evil’ daughters. Here, we have to do with stereotypes that
Stereotypes, Risk and National Identity in a Spanish Enclave in North Africa
length, clearly annoyed: ‘We told you not to go alone! There’s nothing great about Morocco! It is a dangerous place! Unlike yourselves we have learnt to walk ( hemos aprendido a andar ) in Morocco since we were kids!’ Questioning Stereotypes Our
devastating periods in twentieth-century gay and transsexual history, and Dallas Buyers Club serves as a powerful reminder of the historical and social backgrounds against which mainstream films continue the hegemonic stereotyping of narratives and
the metal stereotype, the exact replica used for printing. Since many stereotypes could be cast from the original plate, numerous presses could churn out identical pages. 4 The use of stereotypes and the development of mechanized steam-driven presses
Livia Jiménez Sedano
structural set of evolutionist representations upon which the ‘world dances’ industries are established and developed in Europe. Their success relies on their echoing of postcolonial stereotypes that still work in the social imaginary of middle
Controlling Colonial Migrants in Interwar France and Senegal
Johann Le Guelte
photographer was not easy, or even conceivable, for most colonial subjects in interwar Senegal. Indeed, in many ways the medium remained a “tool of empire” confined to European hands. 44 The colonial camera reproduced stereotypes that were in turn spread and