Italian citizen, has only recently become compulsory, and has, in addition, remained a vague and poorly defined subject. This is, without doubt, the main reason why it still occupies a subordinate position in the Italian educational curriculum, for
Teaching Civic Education in Italy from the School Programs of 1958 to the Present Day
Paolo Bianchini and Maria Cristina Morandini
individu et société
In this essay, two themes—the body and the political and the individual and society—are used to reflect upon the historian's task. By focusing upon the body as represented in the police archives of the eighteenth century, for example, we learn about the lived experience of domination, and the body-as-royal subject provides us with insight into the mechanisms and preoccupations of political power. The often incoherent and chaotic efforts of thinking bodies to engage with or resist that power are at the very matrix of social relations, and it is up to the historian to reconstruct these efforts in their very incoherence in order to remain as true as possible to the reality in which our historical subjects dwelled. An emphasis on articulating the experience of the individual reinforces this ability to reconstitute the ways in which subjects defined themselves via ruptures, interrupted trajectories, and reconstructed paths, which, in turn, underscores the fact that disorder is the ordinary course of social communities. Individual choices themselves reveal the lack of coherence of the social, and it is by relating and taking account of this incoherence that a historian may provide a nonteleological interpretation of the past that emanates from the interior of a society's fragile and hesitating common fate, that allows him or her to understand and recapture for contemporary readers a world that sought only to exist.
Steen Ledet Christiansen
sensations engage with the corporeal effects of gendered violence. That is to say, through embodied sensations of pain the viewer is exposed to what it is likely to be the subject of gender inequalities, expressed physically as violence. My contention is that
Discursive Assertions of Mobility Futures
stated that automobility and the car are gendered and that the automobile subject represents a male one. His masculinity draws significantly on the steering and controlling of the car as a technological object. At present, driverless cars are a
Tracking the Circuits of Mobility, Visibility, and Sexuality in Settler Nation-Making
The late nineteenth century saw a wave of Indian migrants arrive in Victoria, many of whom took up the occupation of hawking. These often-described “turban-clad hawkers” regularly became visible to settlers as they moved through public space en route to the properties of their rural customers. This article explores how the turban became a symbol of the masculine threat Indians posed to the settler order of late nineteenth-century Victoria, Australia. This symbolism was tied up with the two-fold terrestrial and oceanic mobility of 'turban-clad' men; mobilities that took on particular meanings in a settler-colonial context where sedentarism was privileged over movement, and in a decade when legislators in Victoria and across the Australian colonies were working out ways to exclude Indian British subjects from the imagined Australian nation. I argue that European settlers' anxieties about the movements of Indian British subjects over sea and over land became metonymically conflated in ways that expressed and informed the late nineteenth-century project to create a settled and purely white nation. These findings have repercussions for understandings of the contemporaneous emergence of nationalisms in other British settler colonies.
Reading Robert Kroetsch's The Lovely Treachery of Words
Many of the critical essays of the Canadian novelist, poet and theorist Robert Kroetsch, as collected in his 1989 anthology The Lovely Treachery of Words, explore the issue of how Canadian writers attempt to establish a cultural nationalism in the face of the decline of the British Empire. They are an initial expression of ideas about place and language, the problematic discourse of the 'New World', and the reinscription of First Nations peoples into the literature and culture of the Canadian nation. These are concerns which later came to be regarded as 'postcolonial' with the burgeoning of the term in the late 1980s through to the present day. However, his essays are due for reassessment in the light of recent responses to postcolonial subjectivity which critique the 'colonizer-colonized' binary as used in settler-invader contexts. This 'colonizer-colonized' binary has a troubling tendency to efface indigenous peoples. It conceals the imperialistic, land-grabbing aspects of settler-invader history by positing the settler as the true postcolonial subject, searching for a stable national identity – an authentic Canadian sense of citizenship and belonging – in the face of a cultural heritage largely defined by European imperialism.
How the Komsomol Archive Enriched My Understanding of Gender in Soviet War Culture
Adrienne M. Harris
Soviet state decided that promoting greater diversity of women’s accomplishments and roles suited modernization and militarization objectives, yet subjects continued to cling to traditionally defined gender roles and stereotypes. As Choi Chatterjee has
Animals and Human Knowledge
subjects with domesticated beasts are a unique lens to offer that reading. There are two important points to be made here: the first concerns the embeddedness of humans as an important part of animal-powered technology while they were relegated to the same
Hazel E. Barnes
Since any autobiography is necessarily personal and since I have recently written one, I will rephrase the question in my title: “Who is the subject of my autobiography?” If I say, “Hazel Barnes,” the answer is unchallengeable but not illuminating. If I say, “I am,” we fall into a morass. To critique that “I am” would be to take on all of the problems of postmodernism. I wish that I had added a subtitle so that the whole would read, “Who is the Subject of Autobiography? A Sartrean Response.” Or better, “The Response of a Sartrean.” This way I would be on firmer ground, though many interesting questions would remain. Let us assume that I have done so.
From Emulation to Education in the Semantics of Spanish Enlightenment
Pablo Sánchez León
of politics.” 4 The aim is to show the relevance of a scientific approach to social habits for the engineering of an individual (male) subject who, only once being capable of “knowing his own interest,” could be given recognition as a citizen. In