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James Everest and Clare Whitehead

straightforward one of progress overcoming opposition. Although we cannot, in this article, examine the whole terrain across which the ‘theory wars’ played out, we hope to provide a fresh take on a clash within Shakespeare studies that the participants viewed as

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The Task of the Hebrew Translation

Reading into Othello’s Indian/Iudean Crux in the First Hebrew Translation

Eran Tzelgov

controversial cruxes in Shakespeare’s oeuvre and how their solution offers an insight into their understanding of the task of the translator. My approach is two-pronged, using Shakespeare studies and the study of Hebrew literature. First, I will examine the crux

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Mary Beth Benbenek

Katie Knowles. 2014. Shakespeare’s Boys: A Cultural History. Palgrave Shakespeare Studies. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9781137005366 (hb) 9781137005373 (e-bk)

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Where Character Is King

Gregory Doran’s Henriad

Alice Dailey

this reason, however, that Doran’s Henriad provides a useful site for testing the claims of recent character criticism, itself making a comeback in Shakespeare studies after being long out of fashion. In their introduction to Shakespeare and Character

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John Drakakis

In the preface to his collection of essays That Shakespeherian Rag (1986) the author reported that ‘an early impulse to call the book Eminent Shakespearians was quietly and efficiently throttled, and I am grateful to its assassins’. Terence Hawkes, who died at the age of 82 on 16 January 2014, could comment wittily on the genesis of a collection of innovative essays that brought together his own unique and distinctive approach to Shakespeare studies with a lifelong love of jazz and poetry. The title was from T.S. Eliot’s ‘The Waste Land’ and was an oblique reference to Hawkes’ own formative hobby as a highly proficient jazz drummer.

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Shakespeare and Catholicism

The Jesuits as Cultural Mediators in Early Modern Europe

Sonja Fielitz

Though religious matters have long been part of Shakespeare criticism, they have not been the most popular ones on this agenda for a long time. In the last two decades, however, the question of Shakespeare’s personal religious belief has been re-introduced to the scene of early modern studies and vividly discussed by Shakespeare scholars all over the world. The topic has thus proved to be much more than a wave of fashion in Shakespeare studies and certainly deserves further critical investigation. For matters of space this essay must be restricted to one of the numerous questions that concern the field, i.e., the cultural and political impact which the early Jesuit mission, and here the Provincia Germaniae Superioris, had on William Shakespeare, his contemporaries, and the theatre of his time.

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Highbrow/Lowbrow

Terry Hawkes and Shakespearean Appropriation

Robert Sawyer

Terence Hawkes' insight and encouragement of the Shakespearean scholarship of his colleagues works to dismantle the distinction between elite Shakespeare and other more popular forms of artistic expression. When Sawyer first met Hawkes at the Shakespeare Association of America meeting in Washington, D.C. in 1997, they had a lively and spirited debate about 'That Shakespearian Rag', the 1912 hit that Eliot alluded to in The Wasteland, which Hawkes used for the title of his 1986 book, and that Sawyer was currently researching in the Library of Congress. What was most striking about the encounter, Sawyer recalls, was the pitch perfect singing of a few lines of the song by Hawkes. One take away from that encounter for Sawyer was that the barriers between the elite and popular needed to be broken down in current Shakespeare studies. The second time Sawyer ran into Hawkes was at the World Shakespeare Congress in Valencia, Spain. During this conversation, Hawkes lamented the lack of humour in current Shakespeare research, asking rhetorically, 'Where are the jokes?' Hawkes helped to realign our thinking about popular culture and Shakespeare by injecting it with a healthy dose of postmodern playfulness. These two encounters led to a lasting friendship that fostered Sawyer's own engagements with popular culture Shakespeare, including publications on topics such as 'Shakespeare and Folk Art', 'Shakespeare and Country Music' and 'Shakespeare and Jerry Lee Lewis'.

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Margaret Litvin

To my knowledge, this is the first essay collection in any language to be devoted to Arab appropriations of Shakespeare. Studies of international Shakespeare appropriation have mushroomed over the past fifteen to twenty years. Excitement began to build in the 1990s, as several lines of academic inquiry converged. Translation theorists found in Shakespeare’s plays a convenient (because widely known and prestigious) test case. Scholars in performance studies, having noted how sharply local context could influence a play’s staging and interpretation, saw a need to account for ‘intercultural’ performances of Shakespeare in various languages and locales. Marxist scholars became interested in the fetishisation of Shakespeare as a British cultural icon which, in turn, was used to confer cultural legitimacy on the project of capitalist empire-building. Scholars of postcolonial drama and literature explored how the periphery responded. The ‘new Europe’ provided another compelling set of examples. All this scholarship has developed quickly and with a great sense of urgency. Shakespeareans in many countries have contributed. By now there is a rich bibliography on Shakespeare appropriation in India, China, Japan, South Africa, Israel and many countries in Latin America and Eastern and Western Europe.

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Fording the Nation

The Abridgement of the British Problem in Perkin Warbeck (1634)

Willy Maley

The new British historiography of the seventeenth century has identified a crisis of multiple monarchy in the 1640s that precipitated what was hitherto known as the ‘English Revolution’ or ‘English Civil War’ and is now termed the ‘British Problem’. This historiographical shift has not yet been matched by a similar move in literary studies, yet it could be argued that documents of culture can offer much in the way of highlighting the tensions within the emerging British polity. In particular, the English history play provides a useful starting-point in an attempt to map out the literary representation of British identity formation in the early modern period. It also subverts the short-term historical interpretations of the British Problem that confine it to the middle of the seventeenth century. My own feeling is that the origins of the problem go back further, and this is reflected in my readings of earlier material. What began as a way of explaining the crisis of sovereignty of the 1640s can be applied to the Renaissance as a whole. J. G. A. Pocock, one of the first historians to call for a British perspective, has recently argued for an ‘Age of the Three Kingdoms’ that would comprise the entire early modern period. This could be used to argue for long-term causes of the English Civil War – a term that Pocock wishes to retain – while opening up those causes geographically and temporally. I want to suggest that the new British historiography, combined with the recent turn towards the matter of Britain in Shakespeare studies, can be employed to good effect in a reading of John Ford’s Perkin Warbeck (1634), the story of the pretender who threatened to usurp, with the help of France, Scotland, Ireland and Cornwall, the throne of Henry VII, King of England and Wales.

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Redefining Censorship

Lessons Learned from Teaching The Merchant of Venice in Israel

Esther B. Schupak

limited in scope, they do suggest that having youngsters view films or performances of the play as part of their education, an element that is now de rigueur in Shakespeare studies, particularly at the secondary level, may encourage the growth of