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Educating the Other

Foreign Governesses in Wallachia in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century

Nicoleta Roman

province (Wallachia) of a multiethnic empire (the Ottoman Empire), providing an example that might have similar counterparts in other Southeastern European territories. For Wallachia, it highlights the formative role that foreign governesses played, both at

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Andrey Vozyanov

Crises in urban electric transport infrastructure of Eastern and Southeastern Europe present not only a fruitful subject for historical, ethnographic, and sociological inquiry, but also contribute to two intersecting knowledge fields. First, to the multidisciplinary constellation of studies dedicated to failures of sociotechnical systems that I will refer to as disaster and crisis studies. And second, to social studies of urban transit in the former Socialist Bloc, a subfield within broader mobility and transport studies. In this text I will review the state of both these fields and then proceed to conceptualize the intersections between them, proposing historical anthropology as an integration tool. In the process I will occasionally refer to my fieldwork in Donbas, Ukraine, from 2011 to 2013, and eastern Romania since 2015.

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Introduction

Whither race? Physical anthropology in post-1945 Central and Southeastern Europe

Marius Turda

Although research on the history of physical anthropology in Central and Southeastern Europe has increased significantly since the 1990s the impact race had on the discipline's conceptual maturity has yet to be fully addressed. Once physical anthropology is recognized as having preserved inter-war racial tropes within scientific discourses about national communities, new insights on how nationalism developed during the 1970s and 1980s will emerge, both in countries belonging to the communist East—Hungary, Bulgaria, and Romania, and in those belonging to the West—Austria and Greece. By looking at the relationship between race and physical anthropology in these countries after 1945 it becomes clear what enabled the recurrent themes of ethnic primordiality, racial continuity, and de-nationalizing of ethnic minorities not only to flourish during the 1980s but also to re-emerge overtly during political changes characterizing the last two decades.

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Clio on the Margins

Women's and Gender History in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe (Part One)

Krassimira Daskalova, Maria Bucur, Ivana Pantelić, Biljana Dojčinović, Gabriela Dudeková, Sabina Žnidaršič Žagar, Nina Vodopivec, Şirin Tekeli, and Oksana Kis

After publishing a two-part Forum about women’s and gender studies in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe (CESEE) in Aspasia (vols. 4 and 5), this and the next issue of Aspasia will host a Forum about the “state of the art” of women’s and gender history in the same region. Women’s history as we know it as an academic discipline appeared in Western countries in the late 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. Many practitioners in this period came from social history and/or were influenced by the overall progressive political climate of the 1960s and 1970s. Another important characteristic of the earlier period is that women’s history was one of the forerunners in women’s studies. But as important as this period was for the formation of our field, in many countries around the world women’s history is much older and was practiced by women and men in many different contexts and different ways, as the work of both Western—Gerda Lerner, Bonnie Smith, Natalie Zemon Davis, to name but a few, and East European historians has shown. Although we do not exclude the earlier developments in the field, the major aim of this Forum is to bring together contributions about the situation of women’s and gender history in CESEE during the past few decades.

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The Birth of a Field

Women's and Gender Studies in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe

Krassimira Daskalova, Mihaela Miroiu, Agnieszka Graff, Tatiana Zhurzhenko, Marina Blagojevic, and Judit Acsády

Every volume of Aspasia includes an ‘Aspasia Discussion Forum’ in which a particular topic is highlighted or debated. Aspasia dedicates this year’s (2010) and next year’s (2011) Forums to the field of women’s and gender studies in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe (CESEE). The idea came from a round-table on Gender Studies in CESEE organised by Aspasia editor Maria Bucur for the annual conference of the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies (AAASS) in Philadelphia in November 2008. The pieces included here by Agnieszka Graff and Mihaela Miroiu were first presented at that round-table. The other participants wrote their contributions especially for Aspasia. The five texts in this Forum are a wonderful be- ginning of our discussions about the establishment and development of women’s and gender studies in CESEE in the last two decades. Next year we will continue with the presentation of the state of the art in this field in other important East European contexts. During the period under consideration, the category of ‘gender’ appeared as an analytical tool in the realm of historical research in CESEE as well. To follow these developments, the 2012 issue of Aspasia will host a Forum dedicated specifically to the appearance and progress of women’s and gender history as a field of study and an academic discipline in the region.

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The Birth of a Field

Women's and Gender Studies in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe, Part II

Gorana Mlinarević, Lamija Kosović, Kornelia Slavova, Hana Hašková, Raili Põldsaar Marling, Theodossia-Soula Pavlidou, Irina Novikova, Laima Kreivytė, Katerina Kolozova, Serpil Sancar, Elif Ekin Akşit, and Krassimira Daskalova

Women’s Movements and Gender Studies in Bosnia and Herzegovina Gorana Mlinarević and Lamija Kosović

The Beginnings of Gender Studies in Bulgarian Academia Kornelia Slavova

Establishing Gender Studies in Czech Society Hana Hašková

Out of The Room of One’s Own? Gender Studies in Estonia Raili Põldsaar Marling

Gender Studies at Greek Universities Theodossia-Soula Pavlidou

Gender Studies in Latvia: Development and Challenges Irina Novikova

Gender Studies in Lithuania Laima Kreivytė

On the Status of Gender Studies in Macedonia Today Katerina Kolozova

Women’s and Gender Studies in Turkey: From Developmentalist Modernist to Critical Feminist Serpil Sancar and Elif Ekin Akşit

“The City of Gender Studies” in Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe: Concluding Remarks Krassimira Daskalova

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New Immigrants and Neo-rural Values

The Small Non-Greek Farmers of Global Greek Countrysides

James P. Verinis

Though Greek agriculture is arguably the picture of rural underdevelopment in Europe, life in rural Greece is transforming within a new global migratory context. Farmers now work with myriad non-Greek minorities who, with the onset of the postsocialist period, have begun to play a diversity of socio-economic roles. These immigrants help to de fine what agricultural (dis)incentives, environmental stewardship, social fabric and territorial occupation mean in the countryside. Together with locals they now co-manage new tensions stemming from European rural development programs and global commodity markets.

Scholarship tends to reify the conclusion that immigrants are merely transient, exploited labourers. In conjunction with macroeconomic analyses of rural 'stagnation', such characterizations misrepresent current realities and undermine alternative potentialities. As some new residents join the ranks of small-scale Greek farmers, new rural values are crystallising, opening a door for new interpretations of rural development in Greece.

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Women and Gender in an Age of Fervent Nation-Building

Case Studies from Southeastern Europe

Svetla Baloutzova

Tatyana Stoicheva, Bulgarski identichnosti i evropeiski horizonti, 1870–1912 (Bulgarian identities and European horizons, 1870–1912) (Sofia: Iztok-Zapad, 2007), 377 pp., 14 BGN (pb), ISBN 954321345-3.

Mari A. Firkatian, Diplomats and Dreamers: The Stancioff Family in Bulgarian History (Lanham, MD, UK: University Press of America, 2008), 359 pp., ISBN-13: 978-0-7618-4069-5.

İpek Çalışlar, Latife Hanim (Kalem Literary Agency, 2006; Bulgarian translation: Sofia: IK “Uniskorp,” 2009), 479 pp., 17 BGN (pb), ISBN 978-954-330-222-2.

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Clio on the Margins

Women's and Gender History in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe (Part Two)

Enriketa Papa-Pandelejmoni, Gentiana Kera, Krassimira Daskalova, Biljana Kašić, Sandra Prlenda, Elni Fournaraki, Yannis Yannitsiotis, Eszter Varsa, Dalia Leinarte, Grażyna Szelagowska, and Natalia Pushkareva

Edited by Krassimira Daskalova

Women's History and Gender Sensitive Scholarship in Albania Enriketa Papa-Pandelejmoni and Gentiana Kera

Clio Still on the Margins: Women's and Gender History in Bulgaria Krassimira Daskalova

Women's History in Croatia: Displaced and Unhomed Biljana Kašić and Sandra Prlenda

Three Decades of Women's and Gender History in Greece: An Account Eleni Fournaraki and Yannis Yannitsiotis

The State-of-the-Art in Women's and Gender History in Hungary: Studies from and about the State Socialist Period Esżter Varsa

Women's and Gender History in Lithuania: An Overview from Time and Distance Dalia Leinatre

Women's and Gender History in Poland after 1990: The Activity of the Warsaw Team Grażyna Szelagowska

Gendering Russian History (Women's History in Russia: Status and Perspectives) Natalia Pushkareva