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Janet Staiger

are not influenced by these other ones in their generalized evaluation of the film? Thus, once the amounts or types of knowledge that spectators have differ, all sorts of issues about hypothetical versus actual spectatorship appear. Here are a few of

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’Tis but a Habit in an Unconsolidated Democracy

Habitual Voting, Political Alienation and Spectatorship

Anthony Lawrence A. Borja

alienation on electoral participation as voter turnout, 1 this article will look at the challenges to democratisation posed by spectatorship as a predominant form of citizenship in contemporary mass democracies. To begin with, through her studies on American

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Carl Plantinga


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William Brown

Do films that challenge us to turn away from the screen as a result of their depictions of violence raise issues about the ethics not of regarding the pain of others, but of watching films as a whole? Drawing on Stanley Cavell's notion of revulsion, recent investigations into “extreme“ cinema and, Antonin Artaud's concept of a “theater of cruelty,“ this article argues that watching violence on screen is not necessarily a negative and voyeuristic exercise, but that it can be good for viewers to see graphic violence on screen. This is not simply a question of viewing onscreen violence per se. What also is important is that the filmmakers adopt a set of stylistic techniques that are defined here as “cruel.“ Films (typically art house films) that adopt these techniques encourage viewers not to view violence for entertainment, but rather they encourage viewers to understand the potential in all humans to commit such acts. Such an understanding in turn forces us to lead our lives in an ethical fashion, whereby we do not unthinkingly follow a moral code, but rather choose and take responsibility for what we do. Furthermore, it encourages an “ethical“ mode of film spectatorship in general: we watch films to learn not just voyeuristically about others, but also about what we ourselves could become.

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The Cine-Fist

Eisenstein’s Attractions, Mirror Neurons, and Contemporary Action Cinema

Maria Belodubrovskaya

’s Attractions, Embodied Spectatorship, and Narrative Cinema Eisenstein worked on the idea of attractions as such only very briefly and early on in his career. His key essays on the concept were written from 1923 to 1924, and by the time he made his third film

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The Aesthetics of Boredom

Slow Cinema and the Virtues of the Long Take in Once Upon a Time in Anatolia

Emre Çağlayan

onto several online cinephilic outlets—boredom and slowness have surfaced within film criticism as a form of spectatorship and mode of address that allegedly fosters creative reflection, with little explication of how our engagement with film is shaped

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Dan Flory

elaborating one aspect of sociomoral disgust in the context of film spectatorship is the main goal of this article. 3 As Plantinga argues, while sociomoral disgust “is largely a matter of social construction,” it also adapts the “core” of disgust—that is, its

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Flying above Bloodshed

Performative Protest in the Scared City of Damascus

Ziad Adwan

perspectives: the protester’s point of view and the spectator’s one. Since the significance of flying demonstration relies on its effect on the spectators, the analysis of spectatorship requires some detailed examination. I divide the discussion on

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“Mind the Gap”

Between Movies and Mind, Affective Neuroscience, and the Philosophy of Film

Jane Stadler

spectatorship and empathy by using medical imaging techniques and neurophysiological measures to transcend “the limits of ordinary human perception” in order to examine aspects of empathy and film that are unavailable to conscious experience, reflection, or

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The Alchemy of a Corpus of Underwater Images

Locating Carysfort to Reconcile our Human Relationship with a Coral Reef

Deborah James

-based data per se, when considered in relation to reef decline, the images at Carysfort capture a shifting baseline, the intergenerational shifts in how we perceive the culture of this reef including the emergence of an alternative environment spectatorship