what Boal offers is precisely a theory and a practical scheme that attempt first and foremost to combine representation and democracy. 1 This article retrieves the practice of the Chamber in the Square (CIS) proposed by Boal in Legislative Theatre
Gustavo H. Dalaqua
Sartre's recollection, in Les Mots, of his first visit to the cinema is a multi-layered and ambivalent text through which Sartre proposes a number of interlocking arguments: concerning the contrast between the 'sacred' space of the theatre and the non-ceremonial space of the cinema, between the theatre as associated with paternal authority, and the cinema as associated with a clandestine bond with the mother. But the text also sets up a quasi-sociological account of the public Sartre encounters in the cinema itself as revealing to him the truth of the social bond, a truth he expresses with the term 'adherence', and which he says he only rediscovered in his experience of being a prisoner in the Stalag in 1940. Rather than the basis of a sociological account of the social bond, which would seem at odds with Sartre's social philosophy, I read this as the expression of a desire for physical proximity. The space of the cinema thus develops a fantasy, and this is in continuity with the role of the cinema in the evolution traced in Les Mots, in which it is described as instigating a withdrawal into imaginary life and an indulgence in daydreaming. Through reference to Christian Metz and to Roland Barthes, whose essay 'En sortant du cinéma' is proposed as a parallel and a response to Sartre, I suggest that the 'true bond' of adherence which Sartre encounters is an unconscious rather than an epistemological truth.
The article develops Sartre's remarks on the paradox of the actor in two ways. Firstly, it derives from them an 'existential ontology' of mimetic performance - an 'onto-mimetology'. Secondly, it uses this reconstruction in order to put pressure on Sartre's analogy of the actor with bad faith. In grasping the problem of acting from a Sartrean perspective, I show that this analogy is not as clear cut as he assumes and that a crucial difference exists between the situation of the theatre and that of bad faith. To master the paradox of his own being I argue the actor's technique indeed utilizes the same 'non-persuasiveness-of-belief ' thesis identified by Sartre as the condition of possibility for bad faith, yet in the actor's case it need not necessitate the condition of bad faith. In conclusion, I propose that through the notion of play, the actor sheds intriguing light on Sartre's notion of freedom.
Staging The Merchant of Venice at the Hungarian National Theatre in 1940 and 1986
zsidó’ [The Venetian Jew] Apart from paraphrasing Hamlet, the Hungarian theatre critic Tamás Koltai posed these questions quite straightforwardly in his review of the performance of The Merchant of Venice in 1986. His questions referred to
Pascale Goetschel, Renouveau et décentralisation du théâtre 1945-1981 (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France [avec le concours du Comité d’histoire du ministère de la Culture et des Institutions culturelles], 2004).
The Autobiography of Polish Actress Irena Solska (1875–1958)
This article considers the autobiography of the famous Polish actress Irena Solska (1875-1958) as a response to the masculinisation of creativity in twentieth-century theatre, which was a result of the affirmation of the director-centred model. In her autobiography, Solska constructs the image of her creativity with the help of characteristics traditionally marked as 'feminine'. Taking into consideration the theatrical context of the 1930s to the 1950s, the period in which she wrote her text, I regard such a construction as subversive. Solska refused to conform to the new aesthetic norms of the period, which insisted on the dissociation of women's creativity from their embodiment and sexuality. She expressed nostalgia for the full creative status women artists enjoyed under the actor-centred paradigm, but which was lost as a result of the introduction of the director-centred model. Solska questioned the pejorative connotation of the actor-centred theatre as 'feminised' and, by purely literary means, reaffirmed such characteristics as embodiment, impulsiveness and disruptiveness.
The Shakespeare Memorial Theatre in Stratford-upon-Avon opened on 23 April 1879 with a performance of Much Ado About Nothing; sixty-five year old Helen Faucit, long semi-retired from the stage, played the role of Beatrice. This essay explores the cultural politics informing the event from the perspective of Faucit's involvement, exploring her significance to the performance and the performance's significance to her through a series of textual lenses - including theatre reviews, Faucit's personal correspondence, her critical work On Some of Shakespeare's Female Characters and Sir Theodore Martin's posthumous biography of his wife. From a public perspective, Faucit endowed the supposedly provincial town of Stratford, its festival and its new theatrical institution with national stature; from the actress's private perspective, the event was both a professional engagement and a community celebration among old and new friends, bringing together the different facets of her long personal engagement with Shakespeare.
The autumn of 1998 saw a fiftieth anniversary revival of Sartre’s Les Mains sales at the Théâtre Antoine in Paris, complete with facsimile programme of its premiere, placing emphasis upon the chequered history of this controversial play. The review in Le Monde also privileged an account of the political context of the play’s creation over an assessment of the production’s virtues: ‘Nous regardons la photo un peu passée de ce qui nous avait secoués.’ This reception suggests that Sartre the dramatist is already remembered chiefly as the author of circumstantial and thesis plays whose interest depended largely upon their historical moment. It is noticeable that other pastmasters, more ‘past’ than Sartre – Molière, Racine, Feydeau – attracted greater critical attention in the Parisian rentrée of that year, as did one near-anagrammatic contemporary, Nathalie Sarraute.
anthropology. In the final sections, I outline and exemplify the ‘image theatre’ method and other supporting experiential methods which I use in teaching to contextualise and make meaning of fieldwork experiences. How to make sense of unsettling
María del Carmen Valentín
This article is an overview of the Judeo-Spanish dramatic literature in the Balkans. I take a look at the history of this Sephardi adopted literary genre and review some of its main aspects such as authors, themes, and other elements involved in theatrical expression.