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William D. Irvine

Scholars of Third Republic France have long assumed that the political spectrum was divided into a readily identifiable Right and Left, adhering to mutually exclusive positions. But this comfortable political taxonomy could, at times, to violence to political reality. The Right could at some periods in the history of the Third Republic be aggressively nationalistic; at other times it could be positively irenic. The Left was often pacifist, but not always and there were moments when it, or some fraction of it, could be quite bellicose. Neither anti-Semitism nor racism in general were the exclusive province of the Right. On critical issues, the Left could be more refractory to women's rights than was the Right. French fascism claimed to be neither right nor left and at least some French fascist movements could list as many former members of the Left among its leaders as former members of the Right.

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Robert O. Paxton

Gérard Noiriel, Les Origines républicaines de Vichy (Paris: Hachette Littératures, 1999).

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La Police de l'Air

Amateur Radio and the Politics of Aural Surveillance in France, 1921-1940

Derek W. Vaillant

As France wrestles over the uses and societal impact of digital media and the Internet, it is instructive to recall another era of communications innovation, namely the introduction of interwar radio to the French public, and the government's reaction to controversial applications by the citizenry. Recent scholarship has underscored the importance of interwar radio broadcasting to France and its territories. Less explored, however, is the work of amateur user/developers who shaped the radio medium as an instrument of speaking, as well as listening. Determined to manage applications of radio, the French Interior Ministry formed a Police de l'Air to monitor France's airwaves, including the activities of amateur radio users (i.e., hams), whose lawful (and sometimes unlawful) use of point-to-point and broadcast communication had begun to significantly disrupt the government's effort to dictate the future forms and uses of radio. Against a backdrop of political crisis and attempts to manage print and electronic communication and dissent, the skirmishes between the Police de l'Air and amateur radio users reveal historical aspects of contemporary debates over use, access, and qualifications to speak and be heard in mediated cultural and political settings.

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Whitney Walton

blend of femininity, accomplishment, and independence. Along with other recent works cited below, it offers another example of the varied ways that women in Third Republic France engaged with public debates about women and gender. Barine's contradictory

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“Algeria for the Algerians”

Public Education and Settler Identity in the Early Third Republic

Kyle Francis

On 10 May 1881, Ferdinand-Philippe Belin, France’s superintendent of public education in Algeria, wrote to the minister of public instruction and future prime minister of the Third Republic, Jules Ferry, to express his anxiety over an issue that

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The Color of French Wine

Southern Wine Producers Respond to Competition from the Algerian Wine Industry in the Early Third Republic

Elizabeth Heath

directed their attention to foreign competitors—namely Spanish and Italian growers—who now constituted a direct threat to the recovery of the southern wine industry. 26 In the early 1890s, French winemakers pushed the Third Republic to aid the recuperating

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Elizabeth C. Macknight

separation of church and state. 2 Although politically turbulent, the Third Republic seemed destined to last. Within this context, French Catholics did not espouse the premise that nothing could be done. Pope Leo XIII’s directive for ralliement to the

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The Return of N'Guyen Van Binh

Exile and Injustice in the French Empire, 1866–1876

Geoff Read

gain an understanding of the workings of the French colonial bureaucracy as it was struggling to professionalize at the end of the Second Empire and the dawn of the Third Republic, 4 and we are reminded of the limitations in intercontinental

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Civilization versus Barbarism

The Franco-Prussian War in French History Textbooks, 1875–1895

Jörg Lehmann

In French history textbooks published after France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 to 1871, the presentation of the war and its outcome frequently include the myth of France's revanche and depictions of the Prussian enemy as barbarians. Other textbooks presented a narrative of progress in which the French Third Republic is shown as the endpoint of a process of advancing civilization. While the idea of a French revanche can be regarded as a founding myth of the Third Republic, the narrative of progress can be seen as an echo of this myth, cleansed of the concept of the enemy as barbarian, which constitutes a national master narrative.

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James E. Genova, Daniel G. Cohen, and John Ambler

James E. Genova Expériences coloniales: La Nouvelle-Calédonie (1853-1920) by Isabelle Merle

Daniel G. Cohen Xavier Vallat: Du nationalisme chrétien à l’antisémitisme d’état, 1891-1972 by Laurent Joly

John Ambler Schools and Work: Technical and Vocational Education in France Since the Third Republic by Charles R. Day