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Wolf Schäfer

This contribution revisits the dictum "history is the teacher of life" (historia magistra vitae) and shows that modern knowledge-societies are beginning to use their growing information about natural and human history to address present-day problems. Starting with Leopold von Ranke's refusal to investigate history for the benefit of learning from it, the essay cites two contemporary attempts at extracting useful knowledge from history: "real-world experiments" and "natural experiments." Wolfgang Krohn developed the former with collaborators in Bielefeld and Jared Diamond features the latter.

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Laurent J.G. van der Maesen

emergence is fundamental to the question of sustainability. One of the main problems of attaining sustainability is the tragedy of the commons. The tragedy of the commons arises when many independent actors (people, villagers, states, or whatsoever) each

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The commons, property, and ownership

Suggestions for further discussion

Katharina Bodirsky

common-pool resources, such as land or water, and showed that particular communal rules of shared use made Garret Hardin’s (1968) “Tragedy of the Commons,” at least as a rule, unlikely (e.g., Acheson 1989 ; Feeny et al. 1990 ; Trawick 2001 ). 1 More

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Constanza Parra and Frank Moulaert

order to better understand the intrinsic relations between governance and other components of SES, thus enabling the identification of better collective strategies to overcome Garret Hardin’s “tragedy of the commons” ( Hardin 1968 ). The multi

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John Sonnett

scarcity has resulted from inefficient government control of water resources, resulting in a tragedy of the commons and “a colossal underpricing” of water (377). In chapters on the Middle East, Asia, and the US, Solomon identifies various state

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Carl A. Maida and Sam Beck

tragedy of the commons’ connotes, in part, the undesirable effects of population pressure on certain shared resources, especially commons, which originally refer to farming and grazing land, hunting and fishing areas, and places for the disposal of wastes

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Fair Exchange

Utilisation of Working Animals (and Women) in Ancient Mesopotamia and Modern Africa

Jill Goulder

from ownership of working animals. Concerning collective/cooperative/communal ownership of cattle, Hardin (1968: 1244) was the initiator of the model of the tragedy of the commons, in which short-term self-interest leads to the collapse of communal

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The Fiscal Commons

Tax Evasion, the State, and Commoning in a Catalonian Cooperative

Vinzenz Bäumer Escobar

historically been framed in terms of a basic opposition between the positions of Garrett Hardin and Elinor Ostrom (see De Moor 2012 ). In his widely read article “The Tragedy of the Commons,” Hardin (1968: 1244) posited that, in a system of commonly owned

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Thule as Frontier

Commons, Contested Resources, and Contact Zones in the High Arctic

Kirsten Hastrup

and other goods that were tradable in the south. Such extraction was clearly stretching the idea of ‘commons’, but it was part of an earlier European thinking of perceived no-mans-lands, sometimes leading to a ‘tragedy of the commons’, as famously

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Michael Sheridan

. Meanwhile, research on environmental degradation spurred a new focus on common property regimes ( McCay and Acheson 1987 ). Reacting to Garrett Hardin’s oversimplification of collective resource management as the “tragedy of the commons” (1968), these