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The Concept of Civilisation from Enlightenment to Revolution

An Ambiguous Transfer

Raymonde Monnier

This article focuses on the evolution of the concept of civilisation in the French language through the analysis of socio-political discourse from Enlightenment to the Revolution and of the Anglo-French transfers and translations of different English historians and philosophers who first started using the concept in the second half of the eighteenth century. In the interaction between the French and English Lumières, civilization came forward as a meta-concept pitted against that of the contract theory advanced by authors such as Adam Ferguson, with a distinct perspective of an overarching natural history of mankind. Drawing upon the results produced by Frantext and a history of the use of concept in different theoretical frameworks, the author demonstrates the construction of civilisation in its relationship to various antonyms (barbare, sauvage, barbarie), rhetorical uses and conceptions of history.

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Dichotomies Defied and the Revolutionary Implications of Religion Implied

Margaret C. Jacob

The epilogue surveys the preceding essays and finds common reference points. All eschew rigid dichotomies, all try to see enlightened thinkers as complicated, even at times confused. The search for the source of religion—some even found Freemasonry as helpful along the way—also captivated thinkers as diverse as Thomas Paine and Gotthold Lessing. The searching pointed to the obvious need for political and social reform, even for revolution.

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Assets and Poverty

Andrew Gamble and Rajiv Prabhakar

Asset egalitarianism is a new agenda but an old idea. At its root is the notion that every citizen should be able to have an individual property stake, and it has recently been revived in Britain and in the U.S. in a number of proposals aimed at countering the huge and growing inequality in the distribution of assets. Such asset egalitarianism is fed from many streams; it has a long history in civic republican thought, beginning with Thomas Paine and Thomas Jefferson, but has also featured in the distributist theories of G.K. Chesterton and Hilaire Belloc; the guild socialism of G.D.H. Cole and the ethical socialism of R.H. Tawney; the market liberalism of the Ordo Liberals and some of the Austrian School, particularly F.A. Hayek; and more recently the market socialism of James Meade, A.B. Atkinson and Julian Le Grand, and the market egalitarianism of Michael Sherraden, Samuel Bowles, Herbert Gintis, Richard Freeman and Bruce Ackerman. There are also important links to the proponents of a citizens’ income as a different approach to the welfare state (White 2002) as well as to the ideas of stakeholding (Dowding et al. 2003).

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Book Symposium

Karuna Mantena, Adom Getachew, Sofia Näsström, and Jason Frank

democrats, from Thomas Paine to Jürgen Habermas. Disenchantment is taken to be a historical fact as well as the ultimate telos of democratic politics. Frank's striking insight is that modern democracy in fact necessitates “new forms of political enchantment

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Shakespeare and Tyranny: Regimes of Reading in Europe and Beyond

Safi Mahmoud Mahfouz

’s concept of the republican speech act to interpret tyranny in Shakespeare’s Cymbeline . He argues that just as intrepid British anti-monarchist writers like William Cobbett and Thomas Paine used analogies when treating the issue of republicanism

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“God's Mighty Arm Makes the French Victorious”

The French Revolutionary Deists Who Believed in Miracles

Joseph Waligore

revealed religion, the deists had different attitudes toward Christianity. Some deists, like Thomas Paine, reviled Christianity because they believed that Christianity inherently led to intolerance and persecution. 18 Other deists such as Matthew Tindal

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On Counterrevolution

Semantic Investigations of a Counterconcept during the French Revolution

Friedemann Pestel

overlapping directions of revolution. Thomas Paine’s attempted definition presents a case in point for this ambivalence. Emphasizing the progressive changeover of the French Revolution, he preferred in his Rights of Man the category of counterrevolution to

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From Neo-Republicanism to Socialist Republicanism

Antonio Gramsci, the European Council Movements and the ‘Second Republican Revival’

Andreas Møller Mulvad and Benjamin Ask Popp-Madsen

founded upon small-scale, agrarian self-ownership, and Thomas Paine's influential advocacy of popular sovereignty during both the American and the French Revolutions went hand in hand with the promotion of small-scale independent producers 3 ( Anderson

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Time Bandits, Historians, and Concepts of Bad Times

Jan Ifversen

Burckhardt—and many later revolutionaries—a crisis is a revealing moment that opens the door to new opportunities. The original linking of crisis and revolution was already made in the latter half of the eighteenth century, not least by Thomas Paine in his

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Why History Matters for Democracy

John Keane

originally seventeenth-century Christian principle of liberty of the press today remain alive and well, and to demonstrate the great contemporary relevance of the life and writings of the eighteenth-century political writer Thomas Paine ( Keane 1991 , 1995