Eurozone, and Transatlantic relations. The extent that she can continue to control these areas will be greatly limited in her final term. As Horst Seehofer’s first statement as interior minister on Muslims not belonging in Germany and the response of the
Stephen F. Szabo
Almost seventeen years after the Berlin Wall fell, German-American relations represent a mixture of partnership, competition, and a vast network of political, economic and cultural ties which make up one of the most intensive bilateral relations on the globe. A cornerstone of the Euro-Atlantic framework, German-American relations remain of critical importance to both sides of the Atlantic. However, the reasons why that is the case have been in continuous transformation, as the interests and the needs of the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany have responded to the demands of a changing environment during the past five decades, especially since the end of the Cold War. Angela Merkel has stated clearly that she sees a stronger Europe and a stronger transatlantic relationship as two sides of the same coin. While that has been the mantra of many chancellors before her, she has an opportunity to help define what it means today. In setting the priorities and the course of German foreign policy while engaging in an honest and candid dialogue with Washington, Angela Merkel will be building on a mixture of continuity and change within the German debate about its European and global roles and responsibilities.
From Civilian Power to a Geo-economic Shaping Power
Stephen F. Szabo
Germany has become a geo-economic power since its unification in 1990. Its foreign policy agenda has been shaped by its economic interests and the role of its export sector. Nevertheless, Russian actions in Ukraine and elsewhere in Europe combined with the accession of the Trump Administration in the United States and the rise of China have resulted in a transition in the foreign policy paradigm toward Germany as a shaping power and more of a geopolitical actor which has to balance its economic interests with the new strategic challenges of a newly unstable Europe.
External geopolitical developments and the role of the United States have been particularly important in the creation and orientation of the European integration. This study appraises the outlook of transatlantic relations in the wake of Barack Obama's 2008 election and the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty. It is argued that whereas these developments on both sides of the Atlantic could provide for a window of opportunity to shift bilateral relations into higher gear, success will eventually depend on Europe's internal capacity to approach the US with collective and united answers to the main contemporary international challenges.
The Economics of German Natural Gas Imports from Russia, 1982 and 2014 Compared
Stephen G. Gross
through the new pipes into Waidhaus on the German-Czechoslovakian border. 11 The Yamal negotiations, however, were highly controversial from the standpoint of transatlantic relations, creating one of the greatest diplomatic rifts between West Germany and