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Indigenous Urbanization in Russia's Arctic

The Case of Nenets Autonomous Region

Marya Rozanova

Urbanization is one of the most significant trends in the modern world. By 2050, approximately 68 percent of the world's population is projected to live in urban areas (up from 55 percent in 2018). Russia, including its Arctic regions, is no

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Urbanization and Sustainability after the COVID-19 Pandemic

Paolo Motta

This article aims to call attention to the urgent need to mitigate current urbanization processes and to what settlement models might look like in the future. It also considers the impact of the current corona-virus pandemic on large metropolitan

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Claiming village commons by “militarizing the ancestors” in urbanizing Fuzhou, China

Jérôme Gapany

the Mao era but has accelerated since the 1990s in the context of China's sweeping urbanization. Hundreds of thousands of villages have undergone a process of legal urbanization, which consists in turning them into “urban communities” ( shequ ) ( Chung

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Educational Institutions as a Resource for the Urbanization of Indigenous People

The Case of Yakutsk

Vera Kuklina, Sargylana Ignatieva, and Uliana Vinokurova

higher education. At the beginning of Soviet industrialization, the urbanization and education of indigenous peoples was carried out based on the directives from the XII Congress of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks), whose task was to create

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Building a Hybrid Highway System

Road Infrastructure as an Instrument of Economic Urbanization in Belgium

Michael Ryckewaert

This paper investigates the conception and construction of the Belgian highway network since 1945. It focuses on the formative decades of the 1950s and 1960s, when the network was designed and an important financing mechanism established (the 1955 Road Fund). A distinguishing characteristic in the construction of the network is the use of highways as a vector of urbanization for economic development purposes. Combining long-distance traffic with local access to adjoining services, these highways fulfill a twofold role defined at the conception of the network in 1951. Incorporating ring roads, expressways, regional highways, and a high density of exits into a transnational system, the Belgian network is a "hybrid" highway system.

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Indigenous Peoples, Urbanization Processes, and Interactions with Extraction Firms in Russia's Arctic

Marlene Laruelle

preserving indigenous cultures. One of the key ones relates to rapid urbanization. Since the 1960s, most of the population growth in the whole circumpolar Arctic has occurred in urban centers, due both to in-migration and to natural increase via high birth

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Spontaneous Urban Vegetation: Reflections of Change in a Globalized World

Peter Del Tredici

Urban habitats are characterized by high levels of disturbance, impervious paving, and heat retention. These factors, acting in concert, alter soil, water, and air conditions in ways that promote the growth of stress-tolerant, early-successional vegetation on abandoned or unmaintained land. In most urban areas, a cosmopolitan array of spontaneous plants provide important ecological services that, in light of projected climate change impacts, are likely to become more significant in the future. Learning how to manage spontaneous urban vegetation to increase its ecological and social values may be a more sustainable strategy than attempting to restore historical ecosystems that flourished before the city existed.

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Territorial Prospective Visions for Japan's High Growth: The Role of Local Urban Development

Andrea Flores Urushima

The 1960s period witnessed the most important internal migration of Japan's population since the modern period with the definitive shift from a rural to an urban-based society. This unprecedented transformation led the Japanese central government to request visions for the prospective development of the national territory in an open competition. Responding to this call, a wide range of reports were produced and debated between 1967 and 1972, mobilizing a vast network of influential representatives in city making, such as sociologists, economists, urban planners, and architects. This article analyzes these reports on the theme of the conservation of natural and historical heritage. To support a sustainable development that was adjustable to economic and social change, the reports emphasized the aesthetic and environmental value of natural landscapes and traditional lifestyles. The reports also proclaimed the rise of an information society and stressed the growing importance of leisure and tourism activities, nowadays one of the most profitable industries worldwide. Apart from their value as interdisciplinary reflections on problems related to urban expansion with visionary qualities, the reports were also highly relevant because they influenced later policies on urban planning and heritage preservation.

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Of Other Cinematic Spaces

Urban Zionism in Early Hebrew Cinema

Hizky Shoham

The Zionist ethos is commonly described as pro-rural and anti-urban, with the imagined Zionist space perceived as being rural and the Zionist drama as a reflection of the life of the pioneers in Palestine. Recent studies of early Hebrew cinema shared this view. This article analyzes two Jewish films from inter-war Palestine, Vayehi Bimey (In the Days of Yore) (1932, Tel Aviv) and Zot Hi Ha'aretz (This Is the Land) (1935, Tel Aviv), to suggest a more complex view of the Zionist ethos and spatial imagery in the context of the relationship between the urban and the rural. A thematic and formal analysis of the films shows their sources of Soviet influence and reveals the presentation of the city as a nationalist space.

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Prospects of Development for Urban Areas in the Russian Arctic

Igor Popov

development of the Arctic follow the original Soviet plans, or will this part of the Earth remain scarcely populated in the near future? To answer this question, we must pay attention to the patterns of urbanization in the Russian Arctic, which have long