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Alberto Melloni

What impact did the so-called Vatileaks scandal have on Italian politics? And how deep were the connections between the Vatican and the Italian transition of political assets in 2012? This in-depth analysis shows that the problems of the Church in relation to the state came much before the 2012 crisis, namely, during the time of the reluctant submission of Catholic hierarchies to Berlusconism.

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The Gifts and the Calling of God Are Irrevocable

Commission for Religious Relationships with the Jews

Henry Wansbrough

In a paper given at the Von Hügel Institute in Cambridge the author introduces the document recently issued by the Vatican, ‘The Gifts and the Calling of God are Irrevocable’. He outlines the streak of anti-Semitism in the Christian Church from its beginning, and the determined efforts made since 1960 by the Catholic Church to correct this bias, both by teaching documents and by personal friendship and cooperation. This has been a particular emphasis of Pope Francis, who stresses that Judaism is the elder brother of Christianity. Most significant has been the 2001 document of the Papal Biblical Commission, outlining the dependence of so many Christian doctrines on the revelation of God in the Hebrew Bible. Pope Benedict insisted that the Jewish reading of the Hebrew Bible was, though not a Christian reading, a valid reading. The present document explains that for Christians the Jews are still the Chosen People of God, not superseded by Christianity.

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Reproductive Governance in the New Europe

Competing Visions of Morality, Sovereignty and Supranational Policy

Joanna Mishtal

While the European Union currently lacks a mandate to govern reproductive health services and policies, reproductive governance is increasingly debated both at the EU and the nation-state levels. The EU has taken formal positions to promote access to comprehensive reproductive health services. In tension with the EU's position is the Vatican, which promotes the use of conscientious objection to decline the provision of certain health services. Currently, the use of conscientious objection is mostly unregulated, prompting debates about supranational regulation at the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) meeting in Paris in 2010. This article uses the lens of the PACE meeting debate to consider the cultural, historical and political specificities and agendas that give shape to competing arguments about rights, health and state sovereignty. I argue that political rationalities directed towards reproduction locally and the supranational rights debates work synergistically to paralyse European reproductive health policymaking.

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Giuliana Chamedes

The conceptual history of 'economic development' is often told as a US-centered story. The United States, according to the standard account, turned to economic development as a tool in its struggle for global dominance during the Cold War. In line with recent research, this article demonstrates that the post-World War II boom in economic development had European origins as well, and that it originated as a joint response to the Cold War and to the unraveling of European empires. In particular, emphasis is placed on the little-studied contribution of a French Catholic activist who helped redefine economic development in the late 1950s and early 1960s. The Dominican Father Louis-Joseph Lebret stood at the head of an influential movement, which conceived of economic development as a way to save both France and Christianity in a moment of crisis for the French empire and for the Roman Catholic Church. In his writings, Lebret bestowed renewed legitimacy on the French 'civilizing mission.' He also revived elements of interwar Catholic thought to argue for the imperative of building a new moral-economic order that was neither communist nor capitalist. Far from a marginal historical actor, this theorist-practitioner was successful in his efforts, and gained followers for his vision of economic development in France, in Vatican City, at the United Nations, and in various former colonized countries.

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Fred Morgan

From the Christian perspective the Second Vatican Council's 1965 declaration, Nostra Aetate, is understood as having transformed Jewish–Christian relations. Fifty years on it is appropriate to consider the Jewish reactions. This article summarizes, analyses and compares the early responses to the Vatican Council's efforts by Joseph Soloveitchik and A.J. Heschel. Drawing on the work of Jewish scholars in the interfaith field who see themselves as building on the contributions of these seminal figures, the article highlights the tension between the two approaches championed by Soloveitchik and Heschel and posits a reason for the difference. It also considers the impact of the statement Dabru Emet on the theological status of Jewish–Christian relations as they have developed into the twenty-first century by reviewing the arguments of its supporters such as David Rosen and its critics such as Jon Levenson. The article concludes with a reflection on where we might go from here.

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Mario Caciagli and Alan S. Zuckerman

The Jubilee of the Catholic Church is the most frequently mentioned

event in the chronology that precedes this introduction to

the sixteenth edition of Politics in Italy. It could not have been otherwise,

in light of its impact on Italian public life and visibility in

the mass media throughout the year 2000. The “first planetary and

media jubilee,” as Gianfranco Brunelli terms it in his contribution

to this volume, stands at the center of this book’s section on Italian

society. Consider only some of the salient events that marked

this celebration: May Day, which the trade unions left nearly

entirely for the Pope to celebrate; the Gay Pride demonstration and

the attendant protests from the Vatican; Haider’s visit; the arrival of

tens of millions of pilgrims to the Eternal City, the impressive

amount of public works brought to completion in Rome, and the

added visibility of Rome’s mayor Francesco Rutelli. In the imagination

of most Italians, the year 2000 will remain the Jubilee year.

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'Whatever Is in Parenthesis We Do Not Include in Our Prayers'!?

The Problematic Nature of the 'Enemy Psalms' in Christian Reception

Ursula Silber

Catholic prayer traditions always were very close to the whole book of Psalms. But when Second Vatican Council generated a process of reform within the Church, some thought it not appropriate for modern Christians to say prayers that sometimes resemble curses; so finally it was decided that in the Liturgy of the Hours some verses had to be omitted, or put in parenthesis. This criticism is not new; through the ages there have been various intents to cope with the problem, none of them very satisfactory. So this paper proposes five new tracks to understand the language and imagery of violence in the Psalms: their language is not so much descriptive, but poetic and metaphorical. The violence mentioned in the Psalms simply is part of our reality – and so it has to be part of our prayer. The questions 'who is speaking?' and 'whom are they speaking to?' reveal the perspective of the victims of violence as well as the strict theocentricity of the Psalms. And finally, the intention of these prayers is to limit or end violence, not to multiply it. Three modern 'Psalms' from twentieth and twenty-first century authors show that our modern times, too, need a powerful language to cope spiritually with various experiences of violence.

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Religious Tourism

Analytical Routes through Multiple Meanings

Emerson Giumbelli

Translator : Jeffrey Hoff

positions of the Vatican about religious tourism, also combining acceptance and rejection, see Stausberg (2011: 13, 40) and Vukonić (2006 ). About the Tourism Pastoral in Brazil, see Fernandes (2007 ) and Moreno (2015 ). 11 For details, see the