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“Huns” and Other “Barbarians”

A Movie Ban and the Dilemmas of 1920s German Propaganda against French Colonial Troops

Julia Roos

In the early 1920s, Germany orchestrated an international propaganda campaign against colonial French troops stationed in the Rhineland that used the racist epithet “black horror on the Rhine,” and focused on claims of widespread sexual violence against innocent Rhenish maidens by African French soldiers, in order to discredit the Versailles Treaty. I argue that black horror propaganda fused elements of Allied propaganda—especially images of the barbaric “Hun”—with Germany's own wartime propaganda against colonial Allied troops. I use the significant film against colonial soldiers, Die schwarze Schmach (The Black Shame, 1921), to highlight the tensions and pitfalls of the German propagandistic strategy. As the debates over the film illustrate, black horror propaganda often had the effect of reminding audiences of German war crimes rather than diverting attention away from them. The ultimate ban of Die schwarze Schmach demonstrates the complex political nature of the 1920s backlash against atrocity propaganda.

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Borderland of the Mind

The Free City of Danzig and the Sovereignty Question

Elizabeth M. Clark

. Known in German as “Freie Stadt Danzig” and in Polish as “Wolne Miasto Gdańsk,” the Free City was created at the Paris Peace Conference and outlined in the Versailles Treaty. The Free City had some of the markers of independence, such as its own

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Nationalism and Internationalism Reconciled

British Concepts for a New World Order during and after the World Wars

Antero Holmila and Pasi Ihalainen

. Graebner and Edward M. Bennett, The Versailles Treaty and Its Legacy: The Failure of the Wilsonian Vision (Cambridge: Cambridge University press, 2011), 1114; Mazower, Governing the World , 118; William G. Ross, “Constitutional Issues Involving the

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Ernst Leitz of Wetzlar and Helping the Persecuted

Scope of the Research and Some Reflections

Frank Dabba Smith

American attempt to ease the harshest economic measures of the Versailles Treaty. 14 While campaigning on 27 April 1932, Leitz referred publicly to the Nazi SA members as being ‘brown apes’ ( braune Affen ). 15 Remarkably, he was re-elected to the town

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“Hitlermania”

Nazism and the Holocaust in Indian History Textbooks

Basabi Khan Banerjee and Georg Stöber

Germany and annulling provisions of [the] Versailles Treaty which undermined Germany. His deliberate attempts to breach the Treaty of Versailles … led to the outbreak of [the] Second World War” (Tamil Nadu XII, 2019, 102). 78 NCERT X, 1996, 310. 79