Since about the 1980s shrinkage has become a new normality especially for European cities and urban regions. As a consequence of the shrinking process, new dimensions of wastelands appear in the affected cities. Urban planners have to find solutions for these “holes” in the urban fabric and new visions are needed for open spaces. In the last few years, the wilderness concept has emerged in the planning field and it has become a fashionable term, in particular in urban restructuring in eastern Germany. If wilderness is a usable concept for urban restructuring, can wilderness be a new structuring element for urban planning? This article analyzes the mechanisms of formation of wasteland in shrinking cities, and then focuses on related debates in urban planning as well as the debates in urban ecology and nature conservation research. The article concludes by considering different aspects of these debates and the question of which role wilderness can play in shrinking cities is discussed.
This article is based on the thesis that wilderness as a cultural value emerges where it has been lost as a geographical and material phenomenon. In Europe the idea of wilderness experienced a surprising upswing at the end of the twentieth and beginning of the twenty-first century, with wilderness tours, wilderness education, and self-experience trips into “wilderness” becoming widely established. Also, protection of “wilderness areas” which refers to such different phenomena as large forests, wild gardens, and urban wild is very much in demand. Against this background, the article looks into the material-ecological and symbolic-cultural senses of “wilderness” in the context of changing social relations to nature. Three forms of wilderness are distinguished. Adopting a socio-ecological perspective, the article builds on contemporary risk discourse.
This article presents an approach to mapping multivalent metaphors, that is, metaphors that imply competing values. It suggests that a metaphor's interpretative repertoire can usefully be structured in terms of worldviews derived from political philosophies. To illustrate this approach, the article analyzes how Wildnis (wild nature) is used to refer to the Zwischenstadt (hybrid peri-urban landscapes) in German language planning discourse. It thus makes a contribution toward interpreting and structuring this discourse. After outlining the methodological framework, the article presents certain elements of the interpretative repertoire of Wildnis by outlining selected liberal, Romantic, and conservative interpretations of this metaphor. It then interprets actual statements by urban and landscape planners and designers, reconstructing how they refer to various political interpretations of Wildnis. Finally, it is argued that the approach can benefit planning practice by enhancing frame awareness and by allowing for a systematic analysis of the metaphor's blind spots.
A Century of Change to Wildlife and Wild Places in Primorye, Russia
Jonathan C. Slaght
When Vladimir Arsen'ev first arrived in the Russian province of Primorye in 1900, known then as part of the Ussuri Kray, he was smitten by the mosaic of wilderness and culture he found there. This was a land of tigers and bears, Chinese and Udege
Wicken Fen Stories of Anthropogenic Nature
Through a series of stories about the U.K. National Trust nature reserve known as Wicken Fen, this article seeks to contextualize the coining of the word 'anthropogenic' and to highlight some possible 'resources for a journey of hope' (to use the words of Raymond Williams). Although o en portrayed as 'wilderness' and the last wetland remnant of the drained Great Fenland, Wicken Fen is also acknowledged to be one of the most intensively managed reserves in the U.K. This article is therefore an exploration of human-made nature which seeks to understand what it might mean - and has meant - to live in the Anthropocene.
A Theology of LGBTQ Integrity, Integration and Rabbinic Leadership
This article is a conversation between text and life. The particular integrity of lesbian and gay rabbinic leadership is shown to be rooted in the character of Job, in an architectural detail of the wilderness Tabernacle, and in the urgency and the aspiration of Rava, a sage of the Babylonian Talmud. This very quality of integrity and straightness is shown to be called out for, and towards, at this point in history, and is strongly exemplified in the lives of Rabbi Sheila Shulman and rabbinic student Andreas Hinz, z’l.
Russia's Frozen Frontier: A History of Siberia and the Russian Far East, 1581–1991: Alan Wood Ryan Tucker Jones
The Raven's Gift: A Scientist, a Shaman, and Their Remarkable Journey through the Siberian Wilderness: Jon Turk; On the Run in Siberia: Rane Willerslev Alexander D. King
Frontier Encounters: Knowledge and Practice at the Russian, Chinese and Mongolian Border: Frank Billé, Grégory Delaplace, and Caroline Humphrey Laura Siragusa
Indigenous People and Demography: The Complex Relation between Identity and Statistics: Per Axelsson and Peter Sköld, eds. Anna Bara
Aboriginal Health in Canada: Historical, Cultural and Epidemiological Perspectives, 2nd edition: James D. Waldram, D. Ann Herring, and T. Kue Young Zoe Todd
Books Received for Review
Planetary changes associated with the Anthropocene challenge longestablished ideas and approaches within biodiversity conservation, such as wilderness, wildness, native and exotic species, species and ecosystem diversity, and what counts as success in biodiversity conservation. This article reviews and analyzes how the Anthropocene is being used within the literature on biodiversity conservation. It finds that the idea of a new epoch has been used to frame a broad range of new approaches and concepts to understanding and stemming the loss of biodiversity. These new ideas are diverse and sometimes contradictory, embracing a range of ethical values and positions. Yet the term Anthropocene is not widely used within the biodiversity conservation literature. Despite the cross-disciplinary nature of the Anthropocene, interdisciplinary research on these new concepts and approach is rare, and the insights of the humanities are almost entirely absent. Debates about conservation in the Anthropocene are a continuation of long-running controversies within conservation, such as how it should relate to human development, and over the concept of wilderness. Overall, this review demonstrates that the literature on biodiversity conservation in the Anthropocene is not well established, is both diverse and new, while echoing longstanding debates in conservation, and it indicates the direction such literature might take in future.
Jim Crace's novel Quarantine purports to be a text of 'post-Dawkins scientific atheism'. It re-sets the mystical gospel story of the Temptation in the Wilderness into a materialist universe where only the laws of nature preside, and thus converges on a well-established fictional form, the naturalistic biographical representation of Jesus in a fully realised historical setting. The Messianic claims of Jesus are assumed to evaporate under this scrutiny, and the truth-claims of religion itself to crumble beneath the application of scientific observation and the invocation of scientific laws. In the event however the novel discloses an imaginative and visionary realm in which miracles, for which there is no naturalistic explanation, happen. Holderness argues that like other agnostic writers who engage with Jesus, Crace is to some degree of God's party without knowing it.
Kathleen Lowrey, Eben Kirksey, Julie Velásquez Runk, Jessica O'Reilly, Melissa Checker, Juliana Essen, Rebecca Mari Meuninck, Jason Roberts, Yu Huang, James H. McDonald, Wendy R. Townsend, Robert Fletcher, Megan Tracy, and E.N. Anderson
BLASER, Mario, Storytelling Globalization from the Chaco and Beyond
HALVERSON, Anders, An Entirely Synthetic Fish: How Rainbow Trout Beguiled America and Overran the World
HECKLER, Serena, Landscape, Process, and Power: Re-Evaluating Traditional Environmental Knowledge
HELMREICH, Stefan, Alien Ocean: Anthropological Voyages in Microbial Seas
HOLIFIELD, Ryan, Michael PORTER, and Gordon WALKER, eds., Spaces of Environmental Justice
LANSING, J. Stephen, Perfect Order: Recognizing Complexity in Bali
LYON, Sarah, and Mark MOBERG, eds., Fair Trade and Social Justice: Global Ethnographies
MARSH, Kevin R., Drawing Lines in the Forest: Creating Wilderness in the Pacific Northwest
MUSCOLINO, Micah S., Fishing Wars and Environmental Change in Late Imperial and Modern China
PERRAMOND, Eric P., Political Ecologies of Cattle Ranching in Northern Mexico: Private Revolutions
RINGHOFER, Lisa, Fishing, Foraging and Farming in the Bolivian Amazon: On a Local Society in Transition
SCHELHAS, John, and Max J. PFEFFER, Saving Forests, Protecting People? Environmental Conservation in Central America
TRUBEK, Amy B., The Taste of Place: A Cultural Journey into Terroir
VAYDA, Andrew P., Explaining Human Actions and Environmental Changes