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All Quiet on the Western Front

A Phenomenological Investigation of War

Joseph A. Tighe

All Quiet on the Western Front, the famed war novel by German author Erich Maria Remarque, has sold more than fifty million copies, been translated into thirty languages and has been made into two English-speaking movies, one of which won an Academy Award for best picture. It has been hailed as ‘the greatest war novel of all time.’ It was banned and burned in Nazi Germany for promoting anti-war sentiment. Publishers in the United States were forced to censor certain sections of the novel deemed too emotionally charged for American audiences, and these sections remained censored until 1975. Remarque himself was considered for the Nobel Prize, but, due to protests over his candidacy, was not awarded the honor. However, regarding literary criticism of the novel, it is safe to say that ‘[d]espite the great and lasting impact of All Quiet, comparatively little has been written about it.’ What little criticism that does exist on All Quiet has been limited to mainly two models: empirical, which seek to explain the novel in terms of its structure and form; and intellectualist, which seek in the novel a universal definition of War. All Quiet on the Western Front has been somewhat of a critical anomaly: almost no critic would disagree that All Quiet is a meaningful work, but, thus far, almost no critic can give a satisfactory answer as to why.

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Nicole Hudgins

with tripods) at the devastation they encountered up and down the Western Front. To cope with the Figure 1 Agence Meurisse photograph of the ruins of the church in Ribécourt (1915), fifteen kilometers from where Léaud was describing Sermaize. BNF

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Franz A. Birgel

Characterized by Siegfried Kracauer as "the first and last German film that overtly expressed a Communist viewpoint," Kuhle Wampe (1932) is also noteworthy for being the only film on which Bertolt Brecht collaborated from beginning to end, as well as for its controversial censorship in the tumultuous political context of the late Weimar Republic. When set against the background of the 1920 Motion Picture Law and the censorship of two other high-profile films—Sergei Eisenstein's Battleship Potemkin and Lewis Milestone's All Quiet on the Western Front—the political history of Kuhle Wampe highlights the indecisiveness, fragility, and fears of the German Left as the Nazis prepared to take power.

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Robert M. Kaplan

Hitler’s health, both physical and mental, remains a contentious topic with regular attempts to reach a finding. Was Hitler Ill: A Final Diagnosis? published in 2012 by Henrik Eberle and Hans-Joachim Neumann with a review of the latest documentation, claims to be the definitive account, finding that, aside from routine illness at times, he did not have any health problems.1 This account, however, is challenged by the evidence—documented on film and by observers—that Hitler had Parkinson’s Syndrome (PS). There is a strong case that this arose from encephalitis lethargica, acquired during service on the Western front. The finding that Hitler was not unwell, aside from routine health issues, cannot be sustained.

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Fighting over Shakespeare

Commemorating the 1916 Tercentenary in Wartime

Clara Calvo

During the 1916 Tercentenary of Shakespeare's death, commemoration of the playwright and his plays was crucially shaped by the First World War. This paper departs from previous studies of the 1916 celebrations in its approach to the 1914-1919 war, which is not regarded here as a mere background influencing Shakespearean reception but as a dynamic presence, directly triggering appropriations of the playwright as cultural icon and of the plays as revered texts. In the course of examining sermons, lectures, and addresses delivered during the Tercentenary, this essay argues that the Great War impaired the celebrations to some extent, but it also fostered the commemoration cult of Shakespeare. The evidence examined shows how Shakespeare was worth fighting for in both local and European terms - how Stratford competed with London in their respective claims to Shakespeare and how England feared German appropriation. It also shows how in France, instead, quoting Shakespeare's words in 1916 was not a belligerent act of appropriation but a gesture meant to erase the memory of Anglo-French enmity at Agincourt and construe a bond between current allies fighting against the same foe in the trenches of the Western Front. Unlike other studies on the 1916 Tercentenary, this paper favours a European approach that integrates the reception of Shakespeare in Britain with his presence in other European countries.

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Michael McGuire

war stamina is central to this controversy. Audoin-Rouzeau contended that poilus ’ shared patriotism and xenophobia inspired their endurance of the Western Front’s disturbing war culture. 11 Jean-Jacques Becker’s La France en guerre similarly

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Demos and Nation

Misplacing the Dilemmas of the European Union--In Memory of Stanley Hoffmann

Charles S. Maier

faced each other along lines of trenches within states, sometimes as immobilized as troops on the Western Front from 1915 to 1918, sometimes seizing ideological territory or class victories. Nations and demoi feel their identity when they confront

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Walking with the Goat-God

Gothic Ecology in Algernon Blackwood’s Pan’s Garden: A Volume of Nature Stories

Michelle Poland

. Blackwood was writing at the advent of the First World War, which made combat a powerful agent of geomorphic change. Devastated landscapes of the Western Front, global acceleration of deforestation and timber harvesting, accentuation of oil production in

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Michael B. Loughlin

subjects ranging from the western front to the home front, from the socialist response to the war to the gradual splintering of the Left. Hervé’s wartime writing drew reactions from prominent Frenchmen like Charles Péguy (however briefly), Raymond Poincaré

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Vilhjalmur Stefansson

The Northward Course of Empire, The Adventure of Wrangel Island, 1922–1925, and “Universal Revolution”

Paul Dukes

shipwrecked off Wrangel Island early in 1914. 3 One of the survivors, the Scot William Lord McKinlay, returned home to join the army and to write later, “Not all the horrors of the Western Front, not the rubble of Arras, nor the hell of Ypres, not all the mud