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Carl Strikwerda

World War I was an epochal event, given the sheer loss of life, the revolutionary changes that it set off in international relations, politics, and culture, and its legacy in communism, fascism, and World War II. To fully understand the historical

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Rethinking World War I

Occupation, Liberation, and Reconstruction

George Robb and W. Brian Newsome

The centennial of World War I has brought forth an explosion of new history books, articles, conferences, exhibits, and documentaries, of which this special issue of Historical Reflections/R é flexions Historiques is but one example. This has also

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Yves Pourcher

As seen from France, World War I was first and foremost a matter of transporting men who had to be brought en masse to the front. This article describes the first departures and analyzes the sentiments they elicited: sadness, resignation, fear. Men climbed into the trains and went off to war: these first voyages were followed by countless others that bore little resemblance to those of August 1914. Wounded, exhausted, discouraged, and occasionally rebellious, soldiers passed through the railway stations, which had become the heart and soul of the country. In the towns, fear spread as supplies began to be scarce and living conditions deteriorated. Life unfolded to the rhythm of the passing trains until, at the end and in the aftermath of the war, other train cars arrived bearing those who had died.

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Elif Mahir Metinsoy

World War I, one of the most important historical periods of the twentieth century, deeply affected women’s lives. It was a “total war,” which required mobilization of all segments of society including women and children. 1 During World War I

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Laurie Stoff

This article discusses the experiences of Russian nurses in World War I. An examination of Russia's sisters of mercy—as Russian nurses prior to 1918 were called—in World War I reveals the significance of women's medical service and exposes the fallacy of the notion of war as a distinctly male experience. Russian women's wartime nursing experiences share many of the features of the male war experience. Although conventional wisdom draws lines of demarcation between the active killing and dying of combat and the passive nurturance and support of nursing, in reality, Russian women's wartime medical service blurred such separations. In many ways, the narratives of female medical personnel mirror those of male combat personnel. The nurses who served in Russia during World War I indicate clearly the variety of ways that women intersected with and were affected by the war and the inadequacies of gendered notions of wartime experience.

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Kyri W. Claflin

In the early twentieth century, French academic veterinarians launched a meat trade reform movement. Their primary objective was the construction of a network of regional industrial abattoirs equipped with refrigeration. These modern, efficient abattoirs-usines would produce and distribute chilled dead meat, rather than livestock, to centers of consumption, particularly Paris. This system was hygienic and economical and intended to replace the insanitary artisanal meat trade centered on the La Villette cattle market and abattoir in Paris. The first abattoirs-usines opened during World War I, but within 10 years the experiment had begun to encounter serious difficulties. For decades afterward, the experiment survived in the collective memory as a complete fiasco, even though some abattoirs-usines in fact persisted by altering their business models. This article examines the roadblocks of the interwar era and the effects of both the problems and their perception on the post-1945 meat trade.

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Nicole Hudgins

compare this work of, as he put it, “modern Vandals” to the spectacle of Pompeii, “lying in its layers of lava,” which to him appeared “less dreary” than the fresh piles of rubble before his eyes ( Figure 1 ). 1 During World War I, artists and writers like

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From Exoticism to Authenticity

Textbooks during French Colonization and the Modern Literature of Global Tourism

Claudine Moïse

After World War I, exoticism asserted itself in myriad ways, from colonial exhibitions to Negro dances, from schoolbooks to literature. It revealed itself through various scientific and artistic forms and in a fascination for otherness and the

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Colette française (et fille de zouave)

Colette and the French Singularity

Kathleen Antonioli

echoes in Ozouf's French singularity and the #MeToo letter. I argue that traits associated with Colette's writing before World War I (nature, instinct, femininity, antifeminism) became nationalized far more strongly after the war. Though these were always

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Borderland of the Mind

The Free City of Danzig and the Sovereignty Question

Elizabeth M. Clark

When is a city not a city? When it is a state. When is a state not a state? When it is a city. After World War I, the Free City of Danzig was established as a compromise between Polish economic needs and German nationalist claims. Between the wars