World War I was an epochal event, given the sheer loss of life, the revolutionary changes that it set off in international relations, politics, and culture, and its legacy in communism, fascism, and World War II. To fully understand the historical
Elif Mahir Metinsoy
World War I, one of the most important historical periods of the twentieth century, deeply affected women’s lives. It was a “total war,” which required mobilization of all segments of society including women and children. 1 During World War I
This article discusses the experiences of Russian nurses in World War I. An examination of Russia's sisters of mercy—as Russian nurses prior to 1918 were called—in World War I reveals the significance of women's medical service and exposes the fallacy of the notion of war as a distinctly male experience. Russian women's wartime nursing experiences share many of the features of the male war experience. Although conventional wisdom draws lines of demarcation between the active killing and dying of combat and the passive nurturance and support of nursing, in reality, Russian women's wartime medical service blurred such separations. In many ways, the narratives of female medical personnel mirror those of male combat personnel. The nurses who served in Russia during World War I indicate clearly the variety of ways that women intersected with and were affected by the war and the inadequacies of gendered notions of wartime experience.
Occupation, Liberation, and Reconstruction
George Robb and W. Brian Newsome
The centennial of World War I has brought forth an explosion of new history books, articles, conferences, exhibits, and documentaries, of which this special issue of Historical Reflections/R é flexions Historiques is but one example. This has also
Kyri W. Claflin
In the early twentieth century, French academic veterinarians launched a meat trade reform movement. Their primary objective was the construction of a network of regional industrial abattoirs equipped with refrigeration. These modern, efficient abattoirs-usines would produce and distribute chilled dead meat, rather than livestock, to centers of consumption, particularly Paris. This system was hygienic and economical and intended to replace the insanitary artisanal meat trade centered on the La Villette cattle market and abattoir in Paris. The first abattoirs-usines opened during World War I, but within 10 years the experiment had begun to encounter serious difficulties. For decades afterward, the experiment survived in the collective memory as a complete fiasco, even though some abattoirs-usines in fact persisted by altering their business models. This article examines the roadblocks of the interwar era and the effects of both the problems and their perception on the post-1945 meat trade.
As seen from France, World War I was first and foremost a matter of transporting men who had to be brought en masse to the front. This article describes the first departures and analyzes the sentiments they elicited: sadness, resignation, fear. Men climbed into the trains and went off to war: these first voyages were followed by countless others that bore little resemblance to those of August 1914. Wounded, exhausted, discouraged, and occasionally rebellious, soldiers passed through the railway stations, which had become the heart and soul of the country. In the towns, fear spread as supplies began to be scarce and living conditions deteriorated. Life unfolded to the rhythm of the passing trains until, at the end and in the aftermath of the war, other train cars arrived bearing those who had died.
compare this work of, as he put it, “modern Vandals” to the spectacle of Pompeii, “lying in its layers of lava,” which to him appeared “less dreary” than the fresh piles of rubble before his eyes ( Figure 1 ). 1 During World War I, artists and writers like
The Northward Course of Empire, The Adventure of Wrangel Island, 1922–1925, and “Universal Revolution”
construction of the railway. The years of World War I and the Russian Revolution encouraged interest in Siberia from the other powers as they intervened in the Civil War. The protagonist of this article, Vilhjalmur Stefansson, was among individuals considering
Translator : Matthew Roy
linguistic data. 3 The conceptual oppositions of nature versus culture and savage versus civilized were turned on their head by the violence of combat and great loss of life during World War I. As early as 1914, some people deplored “the low morality shown
thus provided a wartime template for the region’s dynamic postwar cultural demobilization. 18 Conditions Envisioned For Western Europe, World War I began in August 1914 with German invasions of Belgium, Luxembourg, and France. By November, German