World War I was an epochal event, given the sheer loss of life, the revolutionary changes that it set off in international relations, politics, and culture, and its legacy in communism, fascism, and World War II. To fully understand the historical
Elif Mahir Metinsoy
World War I, one of the most important historical periods of the twentieth century, deeply affected women’s lives. It was a “total war,” which required mobilization of all segments of society including women and children. 1 During World War I
This article discusses the experiences of Russian nurses in World War I. An examination of Russia's sisters of mercy—as Russian nurses prior to 1918 were called—in World War I reveals the significance of women's medical service and exposes the fallacy of the notion of war as a distinctly male experience. Russian women's wartime nursing experiences share many of the features of the male war experience. Although conventional wisdom draws lines of demarcation between the active killing and dying of combat and the passive nurturance and support of nursing, in reality, Russian women's wartime medical service blurred such separations. In many ways, the narratives of female medical personnel mirror those of male combat personnel. The nurses who served in Russia during World War I indicate clearly the variety of ways that women intersected with and were affected by the war and the inadequacies of gendered notions of wartime experience.
Occupation, Liberation, and Reconstruction
George Robb and W. Brian Newsome
The centennial of World War I has brought forth an explosion of new history books, articles, conferences, exhibits, and documentaries, of which this special issue of Historical Reflections/R é flexions Historiques is but one example. This has also
Kyri W. Claflin
In the early twentieth century, French academic veterinarians launched a meat trade reform movement. Their primary objective was the construction of a network of regional industrial abattoirs equipped with refrigeration. These modern, efficient abattoirs-usines would produce and distribute chilled dead meat, rather than livestock, to centers of consumption, particularly Paris. This system was hygienic and economical and intended to replace the insanitary artisanal meat trade centered on the La Villette cattle market and abattoir in Paris. The first abattoirs-usines opened during World War I, but within 10 years the experiment had begun to encounter serious difficulties. For decades afterward, the experiment survived in the collective memory as a complete fiasco, even though some abattoirs-usines in fact persisted by altering their business models. This article examines the roadblocks of the interwar era and the effects of both the problems and their perception on the post-1945 meat trade.
As seen from France, World War I was first and foremost a matter of transporting men who had to be brought en masse to the front. This article describes the first departures and analyzes the sentiments they elicited: sadness, resignation, fear. Men climbed into the trains and went off to war: these first voyages were followed by countless others that bore little resemblance to those of August 1914. Wounded, exhausted, discouraged, and occasionally rebellious, soldiers passed through the railway stations, which had become the heart and soul of the country. In the towns, fear spread as supplies began to be scarce and living conditions deteriorated. Life unfolded to the rhythm of the passing trains until, at the end and in the aftermath of the war, other train cars arrived bearing those who had died.
Letters from French War Orphans, 1915–1922
Bethany S. Keenan
and happier than today.” 1 Roger was one of over 200,000 French “war orphans”—children who had lost their father in the war—who were “adopted” by Americans during and immediately after World War I. 2 In exchange for donations, American “godparents
compare this work of, as he put it, “modern Vandals” to the spectacle of Pompeii, “lying in its layers of lava,” which to him appeared “less dreary” than the fresh piles of rubble before his eyes ( Figure 1 ). 1 During World War I, artists and writers like
Colette and the French Singularity
echoes in Ozouf's French singularity and the #MeToo letter. I argue that traits associated with Colette's writing before World War I (nature, instinct, femininity, antifeminism) became nationalized far more strongly after the war. Though these were always
War, Colonialism, and Zionism at a Mediterranean Crossroads, 1914–1920
On 12 November 1918, one day after the armistice ending World War I, a violent incident unfolded in Tunis, the capital of Tunisia. Tunisia had been a Protectorate of France since 1881 and was home to more than 100,000 soldiers and laborers who