Zâr denotes a class of spirits, the illness that they cause when descending upon a person and the ritual that is necessary to pacify the spirits and secure the alleviation of the patient's symptoms. The ritual involves holding a ceremony where incense, music and movement play a role in appeasing the Zâr to provide relief for the patient. This article, based on field studies carried out in 2007-2009, provides a current account of Zâr practices in Bandar Abbâs and Qeshm Island in Iran.
Maria Sabaye Moghaddam
An African-Iranian Healing Dance Ritual
William O. Beeman
This article explores the structure and meaning of the Zār ceremony as carried out throughout the Persian Gulf. This ceremony is mirrored by similar ones throughout North and East Africa, suggesting that the Zār may have resulted from cultural diffusion along historical trade routes. The Zār practitioners, the bābā and the māmā, must cultivate extensive skills in musical performance, movement and coordination in order to affect a palliative relief for persons affected by spirit ‘winds’ that inhabit them, causing physical and emotional distress. The Zār ceremony is an important method of non-allopathic treatment for emotional disorders that might elsewhere be treated through psychiatry in clinical settings. Practitioners see it as compatible with Islam, though not a strictly Islamic practice.
Penetrating “the fog of health” in a Nigerian community, 1970–2017
15 , no. 3 : 387 – 392 . doi: 10.1016/0160-7987(81)90064-8 . Last , M. ( 1991 ), ‘ Spirit Possession as Therapy: Bori among Non-Muslims in Nigeria ’, in I. M. Lewis , A. al-Safi and S. Hurreiz (eds.), Women's Medicine: The Zar
State Intervention and the Overcoming of Dependency in Africa before the Crisis of the 1970s
Holland and the Cape, the ZAR was on the road albeit crude and crooked to finding ways to forge some of the wealth from gold into the creation of a modern, purposive state by the end of the nineteenth century, in effect a threat to British interests and
Tricksters in Cuban and Brazilian Spirit Mediumship Practices
Diana Espírito Santo
Capellato and Olivia Krahenbuhl . São Paulo : Livraria Pioneira Editora . Boddy , Janice . 1989 . Wombs and Alien Spirits: Women, Men, and the Zar Cult in Northern Sudan . Madison : University of Wisconsin Press . Bolívar , Natalia . 1990 . Los
Animal Representations and Urban (Dis)orders during the ‘Feast of the Sacrifice’ in Istanbul and Khartoum
Alice Franck, Jean Gardin, and Olivier Givre
year as a part of social and family celebrations (celebrating ḥajj pilgrims returning from Mecca, weddings, deaths, circumcisions, karāma , 20 zār [ Abdelsalam 1999 ], and other healing rituals), renders it at once extremely visible and invisible