connection to the workings of the divine realms ( Scholem  1992: 59–61 ). In writing about the conjured-up “messianic claim,” 1 Scholem alerts his readers to the force of the messianic Eros and Zionism’s susceptibility to its allure, particularly when
Ethnocentrism and the Temple Mount
kashrut in favour of personal religious devotion. 7 As in other countries, the Liberals rejected Zionism. 8 The Zionists and the Liberals were both internally heterogenous groups, meaning that it is difficult to speak of either in general terms
Contrasting Representations of Irish and Zionist Nationalism in British Political Discourse (1917–1922)
political procrastination in London. On the one hand, the British government’s initial support of Zionism proved to be an insurmountable obstacle for officials in Jerusalem, who were powerless to prevent the Arabs from feeling irrevocably alienated from
Rabbi John Rayner was an eminent proponent of ethical Zionism. His views about Israel are related in this article to his views about Judaism and Jewish ethics. The three pillars of Judaism are: truth, justice and peace. Rabbi Rayner personified these values to a remarkable degree. The common thread that runs through his countless sermons and articles was the emphasis on the gentler and more outward-looking values of Judaism. It is by cultivating and exemplifying these values, he believed, that Jews could best help humanity find signposts to justice and peace, not only in the Middle East but everywhere. Ethical Zionism, as understood by Rabbi Rayner, is based on Jewish values. The State of Israel is the main political progeny of the Zionist movement. It follows that the State of Israel ought to reflect Jewish values in its external relations. In the event of a clash between Israeli behaviour and Jewish ethics, Rabbi Rayner invariably came down on the side of Jewish ethics. He consistently placed principle above pragmatism and morality above expediency. He was an honest and courageous man who always spoke truth to power.
Between Aristotle and Hegel, none of the major Western philosophers were married. Is abstract thinking, at its highest, incompatible with the messiness of everyday life? At the age of nineteen, Isaiah Berlin said he was ‘vowed to eternal celibacy’. Was there a connection between his sexual abstinence and his choice of analytical philosophy as a career? During World War II he fell in love with the gentile Patricia de Bendern; this frustrating affair coincided with Berlin’s shift from abstract logic to the history of ideas. In 1956 he took a Jewish bride, Aline Halban. His personal history reflects difficulties in choosing between endogamy and exogamy, Zionism and the diaspora, negative and positive liberty.
Israeli poet Yonatan Ratosh was the leader of the Young Hebrews, a nationalist group active from the 1940s to the 1970s. Despite his opposition to Zionism and his aspiration to revive the ancient Hebrews’ premonotheistic civilization, Ratosh shared Zionism’s ambition to elaborate a new Israeli identity. One prominent act of this mission involved enlarging the literary corpus in Hebrew through translation. Although initially a means of income, for Ratosh translation increasingly came to be a way to express his ideological position and his self-image as an intellectual. Thus, Ratosh provides an example of how developing a national identity can coincide with appropriating foreign literature. With his regular exhortations that Hebrew readers attain knowledge of foreign cultures, Ratosh did not intend to promote cosmopolitanism. Rather, he considered these endeavors as ultimately reinforcing a “Hebrew” identity.
Ernest Gellner notes that the quarrel between himself and Anthony Smith could be summarized by the question: do nations have navels? According to his modernist outlook, while some nations might have navels, others do not, and in any case it is not important; while in Smith's conception, navels constitute an 'ethnic core', essential for nation-building. Yet in the pre–independence nation-building process, what Smith considers Israel's ethnic core—mainly the concepts of the 'Chosen People' and 'Holy Land'—either did not have the same meaning or did not play the important role that Smith attributes to them. Indeed, Smith's account of Zionism is a post–independence invention and in this respect a further corroboration of modernism.
War, Colonialism, and Zionism at a Mediterranean Crossroads, 1914–1920
dynamic visions? What did Jews expect or hope for when invoking Wilson, Zionism, or other international ideas? And how did Jews engage with nationalist pressures from France, Zionists, and Tunisia's own emergent nationalist movement? This article argues
A Comparative View
certainly played a central role in shaping them. Zionism identifies itself as the national movement of the Jewish people, a people with a national religion that has defined the nation’s identity and culture. The Palestinian national movement, despite
The Israeli Communist Commemoration of the Spanish Civil War, 1936–1986
Jewish remembrance that was reworked into the commemorative cult of Zionism. However, the content of these memorial customs remained true to the internationalist, Jewish-Arab, and alternative Jewish national motifs seen earlier. The introduction to the