This article aims to analyse the evolution of âshurâ Shi’ite rituals in an Iranian village, in light of the socio-economic transformations of the last thirty years. Studying these rites as a fait social total, we show that they reflect many aspects of local life. Thus, the increasing dependence of the village on the urban regional centre, the reorganisation of the ties between neighbouring but antagonistic localities, the decreasing status of the great landowners and the increasing social homogenisation, the development of rural exodus and recent national history (the Iran-Iraq war, the establishment of the Islamic Republic and the development of religious reformism) – all have had an influence on the organisation of âshurâ ceremonies. The many functions of this ritual appear then more clearly, manifesting the manner of regional integration, reaffirming internal hierarchies and communal identity, and showing the ever-increasing dependence on the urban world.
Révélateur privilégié d'un monde rural en mutation
Analyses of an Analytical Event
'Ashura is an annual Shi'i ritual commemorating the death of Imam Husayn at the Battle of Karbala in AD 680. In Bahrain, the ritual runs for two weeks and involves processions with more than 100,000 participants. Bahrain is a small but ethno-sectarian heterogeneous island state, where a Sunni minority dominates a Shi'i majority. The religious ritual of 'Ashura therefore has deep political connotations, and a variety of analyses, aspirations, and actions are played out in the context of the ceremonies. This article discusses 'Ashura from the various viewpoints of participants and observers, thereby raising the question of the relationship between analysis and event. I argue that the ritual itself includes an interpretation of the relationship between the Sunni and Shi'i sects, and that this leads to a variety of reflections among Bahrainis on what 'Ashura is and should be.
La nourriture et le sacré dans le chiisme iranien
jour (‘Ashurâ), puis le jour de Arba'în, les préparations de nourriture votive atteignent leur comble pour occuper largement l'espace public de toute ville et de tout village. On assiste à des sacrifices d'animaux et à des distributions de nourriture
Ethnography of Muharram laments among Shi'i volunteer militants in the Middle East
called Hussain the blood of Allah turned the martyrdom of Hussain into the deepest grief through the Symbolic order available to him. He articulated the chain of signification given to him by a famous prayer called Ziyarat Ashura (Homage to the tenth
Shi‘i Ritual Lamentation and the Pious Publics of Lebanon
Fouad Gehad Marei
relevance to the saying “every day is Ashura, and every land is Karbala,” a tenet central to activist modes of religiosity inspired by Shi‘i revisionist thinking. Moreover, the majlis exhibits two important sensory-affective features crucial to the
Martyrdom and Memorials in Post–Civil War Lebanon
Are John Knudsen
martyrdom of Prophet Muhammad’s grandson Hussein at Kerbela at the hands of the Umayyad rulers, 13 an elegiac drama that is re-enacted during the annual Ashura commemorations ( Norton 2005 ). Among the Lebanese Sunni, however, martyrdom has been less