-differentiated sexual encounters between priests and parishioners, cross-generational dynamics within confession, and the racial dimension of such abuse. Father María García's case is illustrative in all regards. First, for nearly a decade, from 1782 to 1791, María
Priests, Parishioners, and the Catholic Church in New Spain
, School Number: 12 November 1918 1 The quotation above is from the police report on a sexual abuse case that took place in the Industrial School [ Sanayi Mektebi ] and House of Orphans [ Öksüz Yurdu ] in Konya, a city located in
A Christian View
Determining when religious language is being used or abused is notoriously difficult, not least because the orthodox line on usage may well have more to do with power politics and prejudice than truth. Ruth ventures to suggest the term 'God' is widely abused since people of faith try to pin down what it means when in reality it signifies that which is beyond understanding. She also notes that the desire for clear definitions may result from a need in an insecure world for simple security rather than complex truth. She discusses how the language of faith is more like the language of art rather than that of science and explores the power of imaginative language to convey truth. She concludes that religious language may well say more about our journeys as human beings than the reality we call 'God'.
Tabooing Incest after the Orgy
Diederik F. Janssen
Late modernity’s binary intrigue of child sexuality/abuse is understood as a backlash phenomenon reactive to a general trans‐Atlantic crisis concerning the interlocking of kinship, religion, gender, and sexuality. Tellingly dissociated from 1980s gay liberation and recent encounters between queer theory and kinship studies, the child abuse theme articulates modernity’s guarded axiom of tabooed incest and its projected contemporary predicament “after the orgy”—after the proclaimed disarticulation of religion‐motivated, kin‐pivoted, reproductivist, and gender‐rigid socialities. “Child sexual abuse” illustrates a general situation of decompensated nostalgia: an increasingly imminent loss of the child’s vital otherness is counterproductively embattled by the late modern overproduction of its banal difference, its status as “minor.” Attempts to humanize, reform, or otherwise moderate incest’s current “survivalist” and commemorative regime of subjectivation, whether by means of ethical, empirical, historical, critical, legal, or therapeutic gestures, typically trigger the latter’s panicked empiricism. Accordingly, most “critical” interventions, from feminist sociology and anthropology to critical legal studies, have largely been collusive with the backlash: rather than appraising the radical precariousness of incest’s ethogram of avoidance in the face of late modernity’s dispossessing analytics and semiotics, they tend to feed its state of ontological vertigo and consequently hyperextended, manneristic forensics.
Negotiating, Constructing and Re-constructing Girlhood after the “Fall” in Rural Kenya
This article discusses problems of childbearing as experienced in rural Kenya by girls in their adolescence—a powerfully formative time of transition to adulthood. Findings reveal that girls face unique challenges and harsh choices when they are faced with pre-marital pregnancy such as emotional violence and abuse, early marriage, expulsion from school, unsafe abortion and poverty. Many Kenyans are calling on the government and communities to put into place policies and programs necessary for empowering girls with enough information to make a healthy and safe transition to adulthood.
The basic human right to sexual autonomy and self‐determination encompasses two sides: it enshrines both the right to engage in wanted sexuality on the one hand, and the right to be free and protected from unwanted sexuality, from sexual abuse and sexual violence on the other. This concept elaborated by the European Court of Human Rights, in the light of European legal consensus, suggests that the age of consent for sexual relations (outside of relationships of authority and outside of pornography and prostitution) should be set between 12 and 16 years. In any event the age of criminal responsibility should be the same as the age of sexual consent.
Gartner, Richard B., ed. 2018. Understanding the Sexual Betrayal of Boys and Men: The Trauma of Sexual Abuse . Oxon: Routledge. 368 pp. $44.95. ISBN 978-1-138-94222-6 (paperback) Gartner, Richard B., ed. 2018. Healing Sexually Betrayed Men and
Moral Baselines on Adult-Child Sex
In this paper I emphasize the multiple ways dominant moral and essentialist understandings feed into the wider regulatory norms and conventional thinking governing adult‐child sexual relations. Clearly, researchers are not immune from the ascendant material and symbolic hegemony enjoyed by child sexual abuse (CSA) paradigms. Indeed the experience of the seven critical writers and researchers cited in the paper, coupled with the author’s own experiences carrying out PhD research in this area, clearly reinforce this point. I contend that sociological and Foucauldian insights on age and sexual categorization can offer a helpful tool‐kit for unpacking the contested claims from CSA survivors, child liberationists, and the specific case of one respondent who resists victimological labelling of his sexual experiences with adults.
Chiara Goretti and Luca Rizzuto
The short, albeit intense, history of spending review in Italy ranks it as a primary tool of fiscal consolidation on the expenditure side. This chapter highlights the plurality of meanings given to the term “spending review” (SR), which include, on the one hand, analyses and procedures linked to the search for efficiency in the production of public services and, on the other hand, the reprioritization of public action and expenditure programs in light of the new, stricter budget constraints. In the Italian public debate, the introduction of SR procedures is closely related to the wider frame of budgetary and public management reforms that have been under way for a long time, yet are not fully implemented. The chapter analyzes the link between SR (whatever meaning it may have in Italy) and the comprehensive fiscal discipline that is required in the new European framework.
A Jewish View
Language has the potential to be used for good or for bad. Even at the best of times, when words are treated with care and respect for that potential, translating what a word means in one language into another is fraught with difficulty. When language is underpinned by darker concerns and motives, religious zeal, fanaticism and the like can turn potential into actual. Religions know how inadequate words can be to describe ultimate experience and have a particular responsibility to use language with great care. They have been at the receiving and giving ends of the ability of language to inflame passions, arouse anger which spills over into destructive action. Tsedakah, Charity and Sadaqa may not mean exactly the same thing - but exploring together what they mean helps us to build bridges between us.