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Affirmative action and political economic transformations

Secondary education, indigenous people, and the state in Jharkhand, India

Rob Higham and Alpa Shah

This article proposes an anthropology of affirmative action that is embedded in analysis of the wider political economic transformations in which affirmative action policies emerge. It is argued that this historically situated approach enables analyses of the relative effects of affirmative action on processes of socio economic marginalization. The focus of the article is on the combination of preferential treatment policies and the provision of education as a state-led response to historical marginalization. These policies are explored in the context of adivasis (tribal or indigenous peoples) in Jharkhand, India. The analysis shows how, despite improvement in absolute educational outcomes among adivasis as a result of these policies, inequalities in relative outcomes are being reproduced and are widening. This is explained in part by market-led gains within the private edu cation sector for more advantaged sections of society that outweigh the predom inately state-led improvements for adivasis. The analysis demonstrates the limitations of contemporary affirmative action in affecting the relative position of socioeconomically marginalized groups in contexts where the state is losing some of its universal features and ambition.

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Beyond citizenship

Adivasi and Dalit political pathways in India

Nicolas Jaoul and Alpa Shah

nationalist or Subalternist, Indian historiography has been consistent in its elitist recruitment among urban, upper-caste intelligentsias and in its manner of treating the anti-caste movement as a symptom of colonial alienation. Dalit and Adivasi populations

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“Real, practical emancipation”?

Subaltern politics and insurgent citizenship in contemporary India

Alf Gunvald Nilsen

today. Dalits ( Gorringe 2005 ; Waghmore 2013 ), 1 poor rural women ( Madhok 2013 ; Sharma 2008 ), informal sector workers ( Agarwala 2013 ), lower-caste peasantries ( Jaffrelot 2003 ; Michelutti 2008 ; Witsoe 2013 ), and Adivasis ( Nilsen 2012

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Muthanga

A Spark of Hope

K. Ravi Raman

On 19 February 2003, the armed police of the currently rightwing government of the Indian state of Kerala descended on over one thousand adivasi1 families— men, women and children—who had peacefully settled on the fringes of the Muthanga range of the Wayanad Wild Life Sanctuary, driving them out in a most brutal fashion and even killing one of those women who resisted. The state had failed to give any prior warning of the police action, nor was any attempt made toward a mediated negotiation. The police unleashed a reign of terror in the region; physical molestation of women was also reported, the latter having been substantiated by the National Women’s Commission. Those who fell into the hands of the police were brutally manhandled en route to the police station; in a bizarre innovation, the activists were forced to beat one another. The movement had been launched by the Adivasi Gothra Maha Sabha—the Grand Assembly of Indigenous People—led by a tribal woman, C. K. Janu. The demands of the Adivasi Gothra Maha Sabha for land, food, shelter, the enforcement of constitutional provisions, reparation for losses incurred by the intervention of foreign companies in their environment, etc., are paralleled in indigenous movements elsewhere, e.g., the Zapatistas in Mexico (see Collier 1994; Gledhill 1997; Hellman 2000; Weinberg 2000; Womack 1999). However, unlike other indigenous movements, the situation in Kerala has received little world attention.

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Pierre Du Plessis and Sanal Mohan

-Reform Kerala . New York: Berghahn, pp. 302, 2017. This book provides a critically engaged, ethnographically nuanced, interdisciplinary analysis of the contemporary conflict in Kerala over the livelihoods of Adivasis, historically one of the most marginalized

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The Many Faces of the State

Living in Peace and Conflict in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh

Nasir Uddin and Eva Gerharz

assaults, which show us that, as Pahari , peace is not ours.” —Shishir Marma, 17 June 2011 The above statement was made by a Pahari adivasi , as indigenous hill people 1 are popularly known in Bangladesh, to Nasir Uddin during his fieldwork 2 in the

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Whose Reality Counts?

Emergent Dalitbahujan Anthropologists

Reddi Sekhara Yalamala

Economic Policy: A Critical Analysis , (ed.) W. Ahmed , A. Kundu and R. Peet ( New York : Routledge ), 239 – 259 . Padel , F. and S. Das ( 2010 ), Out of This Earth: East India Adivasis and the Aluminium Cartel ( New Delhi : Orient

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Soft skills, hard rocks

Making diamonds ethical in Canada’s Northwest Territories

Lindsay A. Bell

.1525/awr.2005.26.1.13 Steur , Luisa . 2014 . An “expanded” class perspective: Bringing capitalism down to earth in the changing political lives of Adivasi workers in Kerala . Modern Asian Studies 48 ( 5 ): 1334 – 1357 . 10.1017/S0026749X14000407