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Jeremy Valentine

This article attempts to show how the conventional opposition between art and culture, on the one hand, and administration and organization, on the other, has been displaced. The main reason given for this phenomenon is the convergence of the collapse of notions of the political and aesthetic causality of art and culture with the destabilizing effects of postmodernism on organizational and administrative stability. After a discussion of the emergence of political regimes of audit within relations between culture and administration, the article locates the causes of the dominance of 'cultural governance' within the dynamics of modernist aesthetic values such as autonomy. The article concludes with a discussion of some optimistic possibilities that may arise from this scenario.

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Fabrizio Di Mascio and Alessandro Natalini

The modernization of the public administration has been one of the main objectives pursued by the Renzi government. What distinguishes the reform cycle launched in 2015 is the emphasis on centralization, unification, and the reduction of institutional fragmentation in the public sector after a long period in which autonomy and the organizational pluralism of administrations and government levels were enhanced. This reform strategy is consistent with the underlying trends of transformation in the political and institutional systems, in which the power of the prime minister has gradually increased. The actual impact of these reform measures, however, depends on concrete organizational instruments of subsequent implementing legislation in a context characterized by persistent spending cuts, which are necessary to maintain financial stability.

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Echoes arising from two cases of the private administration of populations

African immigrants in twentieth-century Spain and Indians in nineteenth-century Ecuador

Andrés Guerrero

The article simultaneously explores three lines of reflection and analysis woven around the comparative reverberations (in space and time) between citizenship and the administration of populations (states of exception) in the Republic of Ecuador during the nineteenth century and the Kingdom of Spain in the twenty century. The first thread tries to answer the question whether it is possible for concepts generated in a country of the Global South to be used usefully in analyzing a different Northern reality, inverting the usual direction in the flows of transfer and importation of “theory.“ The second theme of comparative reverberation explores a network of concepts concerning the citizenship of common sense and the administration of populations, that is the “back-patio“ aspect of citizenship, particularly its historical formation in the domination of populations in the Republic of Ecuador during the nineteenth century. It is centered on the process of identification in the daily exchanges between interpares citizens and extrapares non-citizens. The last section involves testing concepts forged in the author's studies of Ecuadorian history for their utility in analyzing the current situation of modern sub-Saharan immigrants in Spain (using concrete examples), and their reclusion to the private sphere in spaces of exception and abandonment. Here, the article concentrates on the difference between the public administration of populations and the private administration of citizens. The article uses documentary material relating to nineteenth-century Ecuador and twentieth-century Spain and Senegal.

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Emiliano Alessandri

Despite Silvio Berlusconi’s much-publicized friendship with US President

George W. Bush, the election of Barack Obama in November 2008

did not lead to any appreciable deterioration of US-Italy relations. The

clash of personalities and “ideologies” that some had predicted did not

materialize. The two leaders soon established a cordial and pragmatic

relationship. The emphasis on continuity, however, did not deter

change. In fact, the shift in priorities and approach brought about by

the Obama administration during its first year in office altered the context

within which Italian foreign policy was carried out. New opportunities

opened up as Italy’s engagement with Russia and Iran, which

had attracted criticism in the past, also became the stated goal of the

US government. At the same time, Italian foreign policy was faced

with new constraints as Obama’s new course combined US leadership

with coordination, expecting European allies to consult with Washington

on dossiers having both national and transatlantic dimensions.

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The Way a Language Changes

How Historical Semantics Helps Us to Understand the Emergence of the English Exchequer

Ulla Kypta

The article argues that it is not only useful to study the changing meanings of concepts, but also to analyze the way these concepts changed their meaning over time. As a case study, I analyze the transformation of the language of the earliest surviving accounts of the yearly auditing process in England, the pipe rolls from the twelfth century. The language changed gradually and continually, without guidance or a plan. It is highly likely that the language was learned while the pipe rolls were written. Thus, the clerks could easily close their circle. This led to a strong sense of belonging and self-consciousness, which can be affirmed by other contemporary sources, and which laid the foundation for the accounting procedures that became a long-lasting organization.

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Richard Daly

Recently, the historical validity of concepts of aboriginality has been questioned. It is argued here that aboriginality has been and remains a significant feature of identity and a source of cultural renewal in a rapidly changing world. The nature of aboriginality must always be qualified and contextualized. In Canada, a specific notion of aboriginality is an administrative tool of government that at all times is partially accepted and partially opposed by those so defined and administrated. In the example described here, the missionary William Duncan denied the concept of aboriginality presented by his Tsimshian flock as well as that enunciated by the Canadian government. Today, the descendants of these mission communities have ontological identities linked not only to Christian modernity but also to Tsimshian aboriginality defined one way by the government and quite differently by each local community.

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James Ryan Anderson

In a little more than a decade, Germany’s role in international affairs—

particularly from a military perspective—has radically changed. Whereas

German participation during the Persian Gulf War of 1991 was

basically limited to providing financial support to the international

coalition led by the United States, by the end of 2001, German soldiers

were operating under combat conditions in the United Nations peacekeeping

mission to Afghanistan. During (and even before) this transition,

little attention has been devoted to the German Bundestag’s

constitutional role as overseer of executive foreign affairs activities.

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Agricultural Fire or Arson?

Rural Denizens, Forest Administration, and the Colonial Situation in Algeria (1850–1900)

Antonin Plarier

? Forest fires were indeed accompanied by legitimizing or disqualifying speeches that revealed what was at stake. The will of the forestry administration to eradicate this agricultural practice resulted in severe repression, much as observed in metropolitan

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Yan Slobodkin

physiology than with medicine, treating colonial subjects as experimental subjects first and only incidentally as patients. In the wake of the First World War, however, nutrition took on unprecedented importance in the administration of empire. The new

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Andrea Butcher

of social organisation, cooperation and expert identities in Ladakh’s development administration. Development Discourse, Projects and Strategies Whilst Norberg-Hodge’s reification of Ladakh – introduced above – has been criticised for its tendency to